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E-resource INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT

Źródło: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.

MANOUVERING ALARM

1. Film in the standard version.

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The film shows a conversation about the manoeuvring characteristics of a ship and tasks performed during a manoeuvring alarm. Film przedstawia rozmowę o cechach manewrowych statku i czynnościach wykonywanych w czasie alarmu.

2. Film with subtitles.

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The film shows a conversation about the manoeuvring characteristics of a ship and tasks performed during a manoeuvring alarm. Film przedstawia rozmowę o cechach manewrowych statku i czynnościach wykonywanych w czasie alarmu.
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3. Film with subtitles and pauses. Listen and repeat after the speaker.

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The film shows a conversation about the manoeuvring characteristics of a ship and tasks performed during a manoeuvring alarm. Film przedstawia rozmowę o cechach manewrowych statku i czynnościach wykonywanych w czasie alarmu.
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4. Film with subtitles and narration.

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The film shows a conversation about the manoeuvring characteristics of a ship and tasks performed during a manoeuvring alarm. Film przedstawia rozmowę o cechach manewrowych statku i czynnościach wykonywanych w czasie alarmu.
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classicmobile
Exercise 1
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Exercises

classicmobile
Exercise 2
R1QhdJBVRtkRL1
Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
static
classicmobile
Exercise 3
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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DEPARTING FROM THE DOCK

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The animation shows the procedures in an open river port. The push convoy is moored port side at the dock. The reader describes the commands and procedures employed when the ship departs from the dock and enters the river trail. Animacja przedstawia wydarzenia w porcie otwartym na rzece. Zestaw pchany stoi zacumowany do nabrzeża lewą burtą. Omawiane są komendy i czynności związane z odejściem statku od nabrzeża i wypłynięciem na tor wodny.
classicmobile
Exercise 4
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Exercises

classicmobile
Exercise 5
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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classicmobile
Exercise 6
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Mooring manoeuvres

The hypertext shows an excerpt from an interview with a helmsman about the procedures and tasks executed during mooring manoeuvres.

Hipertekst przedstawia fragment wywiadu ze sternikiem na temat procedur i czynności wykonywanych w czasie manewrów kotwicznych.

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Journalist: Most of us associate anchors with summer holidays. But to some it's a symbol of work. Mister Karol Szyc, a helmsman, is one of those people. Could you tell us more about this piece of equipment?

Helmsman: Good morning. Anchor equipmentm88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497279637332_0Anchor equipment should be checked and preserved before a cruise. That's because the mooring manoeuvres may be carried out in an unexpected moment. The local regulationsm88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497279718401_0local regulations should also be checked before a cruise. It's necessary, because you should be aware of the areas which forbid mooring due to pipelinesm88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497279733582_0pipelines or electrical cablesm88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497279738479_0electrical cables running across the bottom.

Journalist: Small vessels generally use Danforth anchorsm88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497279743621_0Danforth anchors. Are they safer?

Helmsman: Yes. On shallow waters the hull could be ripped up by a protruding claw of a four‑palm anchorm88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497279748379_0four‑palm anchor.

Journalist: So the equipment could cause harm to the ship?

Helmsman: Exactly.

Journalist: How is a mooring alarm executed?

Helmsman: When the alarm is raised, we decrease the ship's speed, turn upstream and upwind and use a sounderm88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497279753543_0sounder or a boat‑hookm88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497279762480_0boat‑hook to check the depth and type of the river bed. Then, we prepare the anchor to be dropped, adjust the length of the anchor buoy line and drop the floatm88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497279767416_0float. After the command „drop the anchor”, we release the ***brake,***m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498481495468_0***brake,*** pawlm88f1b8b3917c19ff_1537964039750_0pawl and stopperm88f1b8b3917c19ff_1537964035114_0stopper and the anchor drops to the bottom. We have to check the strain of the anchor chain to make sure the anchor is secure. Then we just have to mark the ship as anchored.

Journalist: Thank you for your explanation. We'll go back to it in a moment.

classicmobile
Exercise 7
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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MANOUVERING IN THE WIND

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The recording describes the impact of wind on a ship in motion and during port manoeuvres. Nagranie opisuje działanie wiatru na statek w ruchu oraz w czasie wykonywania manewrów portowych.
classicmobile
Exercise 8
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498416934151_0

Exercises

classicmobile
Exercise 9
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
static
classicmobile
Exercise 10
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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NAVIGATIONAL WARNINGS

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The document illustrates selected navigational warnings.
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Download the attachment. Pobierz załącznik.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Gallery

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TYPE A WORD AND PART OF SPEECH

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Play the game. Zagraj w grę.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
Rz1HFZTcTtr7E11
Play the game. Zagraj w grę.
Source: Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497304851566_0

Dictionary

aft spring line, aft spring lines [ɑːft sprɪŋ laɪn, ɑːft sprɪŋ laɪnz] [n. C]
aft spring line, aft spring lines [ɑːft sprɪŋ laɪn, ɑːft sprɪŋ laɪnz] [n. C]

szpring rufowy

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497305024756_0
anchor equipment [ˈæŋ.kər ɪˈkwɪp.mənt] [n. U]
anchor equipment [ˈæŋ.kər ɪˈkwɪp.mənt] [n. U]

urządzenie kotwiczne

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497305028963_0
angle, angles [ˈæŋ.ɡəl, ˈæŋ.ɡəlz] [n. C]
angle, angles [ˈæŋ.ɡəl, ˈæŋ.ɡəlz] [n. C]

kąt

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497335091175_0
apparent wind, apparent winds [əˈpær.ənt wɪnd, əˈpær.ənt wɪndz] [n. C or U]
apparent wind, apparent winds [əˈpær.ənt wɪnd, əˈpær.ənt wɪndz] [n. C or U]

wiatr pozorny

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497335096649_0
area [ˈeə.ri.ə, ˈeə.ri.əz] [n. C]
area [ˈeə.ri.ə, ˈeə.ri.əz] [n. C]

akwen

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497335101839_0
board, boards [bɔːd, bɔːdz] [n. C]
board, boards [bɔːd, bɔːdz] [n. C]

burta

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497336395332_0
boat‑hook, boat‑hooks [ˈbəʊt.hʊk, ˈbəʊt.hʊks] [n. C]
boat‑hook, boat‑hooks [ˈbəʊt.hʊk, ˈbəʊt.hʊks] [n. C]

bosak

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497336402048_0
bow, bows [baʊ, baʊz] [n. C]
bow, bows [baʊ, baʊz] [n. C]

dziób

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497336417468_0
bow thruster, bow thrusters [baʊ ˈθrʌstə, baʊ ˈθrʌstəz] [n. C]
bow thruster, bow thrusters [baʊ ˈθrʌstə, baʊ ˈθrʌstəz] [n. C]

ster strumieniowy

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497336426296_0
brake, brakes [breɪk, breɪks] [n. C]
brake, brakes [breɪk, breɪks] [n. C]

hamulec

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497336435646_0
buoy, buoys [bɔɪ, bɔɪz] [n. C]
buoy, buoys [bɔɪ, bɔɪz] [n. C]

bojka

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1497951440522_0
crew, crews [kruː, kruːz] [n. C]
crew, crews [kruː, kruːz] [n. C]

załoga

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498200392889_0
Danforth anchor, Danforth anchors [ˈdanfəθ ˈæŋ.kə, ˈdanfəθ ˈæŋ.kəz] [n. C]
Danforth anchor, Danforth anchors [ˈdanfəθ ˈæŋ.kə, ˈdanfəθ ˈæŋ.kəz] [n. C]

kotwica dziobowo – patentowa

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498200534880_0
directional stability [daɪˈrek.ʃən.əl stəˈbɪl.ə.ti] [n. U]
directional stability [daɪˈrek.ʃən.əl stəˈbɪl.ə.ti] [n. U]

stateczność kursowa

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498200615979_0
dock, docks [dɒk, dɒks] [n. C]
dock, docks [dɒk, dɒks] [n. C]

nabrzeże

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498200694347_0
dolphin, dolphins [ˈdɒl.fɪn, ˈdɒl.fɪnz] [n. C]
dolphin, dolphins [ˈdɒl.fɪn, ˈdɒl.fɪnz] [n. C]

dalba

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498200790392_0
double‑propeller stream, double‑propeller streams [ˈdʌb.əl‑prəˈpel.ə striːm, ˈdʌb.əl‑prəˈpel.ə striːmz] [n. C]
double‑propeller stream, double‑propeller streams [ˈdʌb.əl‑prəˈpel.ə striːm, ˈdʌb.əl‑prəˈpel.ə striːmz] [n. C]

statek jednośrubowy

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498200850227_0
draught, draughts [drɑːft, drɑːfts] [n. C]
draught, draughts [drɑːft, drɑːfts] [n. C]

zanurzenie

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498200941146_0
ease the sheet, let the jib fly [iːz ðə ʃiːt, let ðə dʒɪb flaɪ] [phrase]
ease the sheet, let the jib fly [iːz ðə ʃiːt, let ðə dʒɪb flaɪ] [phrase]

foka szot luz

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498201014271_0
electrical cable, electrical cables [iˈlek.trɪ.kəl ˈkeɪ.bəl, iˈlek.trɪ.kəl ˈkeɪ.bəlz] [n. C]
electrical cable, electrical cables [iˈlek.trɪ.kəl ˈkeɪ.bəl, iˈlek.trɪ.kəl ˈkeɪ.bəlz] [n. C]

przewód elektryczny

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498201078358_0
entry light, entry lights [ˈen.tri laɪt, ˈen.tri laɪts] [n. C]
entry light, entry lights [ˈen.tri laɪt, ˈen.tri laɪts] [n. C]

światło wejściowe

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498201193546_0
estuary, mouth of the river, estuaries, mouths of the rivers [ˈes.tʃu.ə.ri, maʊθ əv ðə ˈrɪv.ə, ˈes.tʃu.ə.riz, maʊθs əv ðə ˈrɪv.əz] [n. C]
estuary, mouth of the river, estuaries, mouths of the rivers [ˈes.tʃu.ə.ri, maʊθ əv ðə ˈrɪv.ə, ˈes.tʃu.ə.riz, maʊθs əv ðə ˈrɪv.əz] [n. C]

ujście rzeki

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498201269495_0
fender, fenders [ˈfen.də, ˈfen.dəz] [n. C]
fender, fenders [ˈfen.də, ˈfen.dəz] [n. C]

odbijacz

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498201341977_0
first aid [ˌfɜːst ˈeɪd] [n. U]
first aid [ˌfɜːst ˈeɪd] [n. U]

pierwsza pomoc

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498201410061_0
forward spring line, forward spring lines [ˈfɔː.wəd sprɪŋ laɪn, ˈfɔː.wəd sprɪŋ laɪnz] [n. C]
forward spring line, forward spring lines [ˈfɔː.wəd sprɪŋ laɪn, ˈfɔː.wəd sprɪŋ laɪnz] [n. C]

szpring dziobowy

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498201527177_0
four‑palm anchor, four‑palm anchors [fɔː‑pɑːm ˈæŋ.kə, fɔː‑pɑːm ˈæŋ.kəz] [n. C]
four‑palm anchor, four‑palm anchors [fɔː‑pɑːm ˈæŋ.kə, fɔː‑pɑːm ˈæŋ.kəz] [n. C]

kotwica czterołapowa

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498201595904_0
glide [ɡlaɪd] [v.]
glide [ɡlaɪd] [v.]

obsuwać się

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498201684168_0
heeling, heelings [ˈhiːlɪŋ, ˈhiːlɪŋz] [n. C]
heeling, heelings [ˈhiːlɪŋ, ˈhiːlɪŋz] [n. C]

przechył

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498201747556_0
jibing [dʒaɪb.ɪŋ] [n. U]
jibing [dʒaɪb.ɪŋ] [n. U]

zwrot przez rufę

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498201813446_0
keep the course [kiːp ðə kɔːs] [phrase]
keep the course [kiːp ðə kɔːs] [phrase]

zachowywać kurs

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498201818702_0
knot, knots [nɒt, nɒts] [n. C]
knot, knots [nɒt, nɒts] [n. C]

węzeł

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498202010448_0
leading lights [ˈliː.dɪŋ laɪts] [n. plural]
leading lights [ˈliː.dɪŋ laɪts] [n. plural]

nabieżnik

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498202174480_0
leeward ship, leeward ships [ˈliː.wəd ʃɪp, ˈliː.wəd ʃɪps] [n. C]
leeward ship, leeward ships [ˈliː.wəd ʃɪp, ˈliː.wəd ʃɪps] [n. C]

statek zawietrzny

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498202235942_0
leeway [ˈliː.weɪ] [n. U]
leeway [ˈliː.weɪ] [n. U]

dryf

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498202331235_0
let the sails fly [let ðə seɪlz flaɪ] [phrase]
let the sails fly [let ðə seɪlz flaɪ] [phrase]

żagle luz

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498202432362_0
line, lines [laɪn, laɪnz] [n. C]
line, lines [laɪn, laɪnz] [n. C]

cuma

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498202568651_0
local regulation, local regulations [ˈləʊ.kəl ˌreɡ.jəˈleɪ.ʃən, ˈləʊ.kəl ˌreɡ.jəˈleɪ.ʃənz] [n. C]
local regulation, local regulations [ˈləʊ.kəl ˌreɡ.jəˈleɪ.ʃən, ˈləʊ.kəl ˌreɡ.jəˈleɪ.ʃənz] [n. C]

przepis lokalny

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498202635073_0
man overboard (MOB) [mæn ˈəʊ.və.bɔːd] [phrase]
man overboard (MOB) [mæn ˈəʊ.və.bɔːd] [phrase]

człowiek za burtą

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498202697265_0
manoeuvre, manoeuvres [məˈnuː.və, məˈnuː.vəz] [n. C]
manoeuvre, manoeuvres [məˈnuː.və, məˈnuː.vəz] [n. C]

manewr

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498202760465_0
manoeuvring alarm [məˈnuː.vər.ɪŋ əˈlɑːm, məˈnuː.vər.ɪŋ əˈlɑːmz] [n. C or U]
manoeuvring alarm [məˈnuː.vər.ɪŋ əˈlɑːm, məˈnuː.vər.ɪŋ əˈlɑːmz] [n. C or U]

alarm manewrowy

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498202833122_0
marking, markings [ˈmɑː.kɪŋ, ˈmɑː.kɪŋz] [n. C]
marking, markings [ˈmɑː.kɪŋ, ˈmɑː.kɪŋz] [n. C]

oznakowanie

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498202891013_0
MOB recovery [mɒb rɪˈkʌv.ər.i] [n. U]
MOB recovery [mɒb rɪˈkʌv.ər.i] [n. U]

podjęcie człowieka

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498202955129_0
mooring area [ˈmɔː.rɪŋ ˈeə.ri.ə, ˈmɔː.rɪŋ ˈeə.ri.əz] [n. C]
mooring area [ˈmɔː.rɪŋ ˈeə.ri.ə, ˈmɔː.rɪŋ ˈeə.ri.əz] [n. C]

palowisko

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498203026625_0
one‑way traffic [wʌn‑weɪ ˈtræf.ɪk] [n. U]
one‑way traffic [wʌn‑weɪ ˈtræf.ɪk] [n. U]

ruch jednokierunkowy

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498203095432_0
pawl, pawls [pɔːl, pɔːlz] [n. C]
pawl, pawls [pɔːl, pɔːlz] [n. C]

zapadka

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498203151584_0
pier, piers [pɪə, pɪəz] [n. C]
pier, piers [pɪə, pɪəz] [n. C]

pomost

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498203230112_0
pipeline, pipelines [ˈpaɪp.laɪn, ˈpaɪp.laɪnz] [n. C]
pipeline, pipelines [ˈpaɪp.laɪn, ˈpaɪp.laɪnz] [n. C]

rurociąg

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498205986222_0
position, positions [pəˈzɪʃ.ən, pəˈzɪʃ.ənz] [n. C or U]
position, positions [pəˈzɪʃ.ən, pəˈzɪʃ.ənz] [n. C or U]

położenie

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498206050067_0
propeller, propellers [prəˈpel.ə, prəˈpel.əz] [n. C]
propeller, propellers [prəˈpel.ə, prəˈpel.əz] [n. C]

śruba

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498206109100_0
recover MOB [rɪˈkʌv.ə mɒb] [phrase]
recover MOB [rɪˈkʌv.ə mɒb] [phrase]

człowiek na pokład

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498206186240_0
rescue measure, rescue measures [ˈres.kjuː ˈmeʒ.ə, ˈres.kjuː ˈmeʒ.əz] [n. C]
rescue measure, rescue measures [ˈres.kjuː ˈmeʒ.ə, ˈres.kjuː ˈmeʒ.əz] [n. C]

środek ratunkowy

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498206382138_0
rudder, rudders [ˈrʌd.ə, ˈrʌd.əz] [n. C]
rudder, rudders [ˈrʌd.ə, ˈrʌd.əz] [n. C]

ster

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498206443694_0
sailing ship, sailing ships [ˈseɪ.lɪŋ ʃɪp, ˈseɪ.lɪŋ ʃɪps] [n. C]
sailing ship, sailing ships [ˈseɪ.lɪŋ ʃɪp, ˈseɪ.lɪŋ ʃɪps] [n. C]

jacht żaglowy

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498206536769_0
shallows [ˈʃæl.əʊz] [n. plural]
shallows [ˈʃæl.əʊz] [n. plural]

wypłycenie

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498206600710_0
sheet and jib home [ʃiːt ənd dʒɪb həʊm] [phrase]
sheet and jib home [ʃiːt ənd dʒɪb həʊm] [phrase]

foka szot wybieraj

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498207000360_0
single‑propeller stream, single‑propeller streams [ˈsɪŋ.ɡəl‑prəˈpel.ə striːm, ˈsɪŋ.ɡəl‑prəˈpel.ə striːmz] [n. C]
single‑propeller stream, single‑propeller streams [ˈsɪŋ.ɡəl‑prəˈpel.ə striːm, ˈsɪŋ.ɡəl‑prəˈpel.ə striːmz] [n. C]

statek dwuśrubowy

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498207071237_0
sounder, sounders [saʊndə, 'saʊndəz] [n. C]
sounder, sounders [saʊndə, 'saʊndəz] [n. C]

sonda

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498207140266_0
stern, sterns [stɜːn, stɜːnz] [n. C]
stern, sterns [stɜːn, stɜːnz] [n. C]

rufa

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498207241174_0
stopper, stoppers [ˈstɒp.ə, ˈstɒp.əz] [n. C]
stopper, stoppers [ˈstɒp.ə, ˈstɒp.əz] [n. C]

stoper

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498207362598_0
stream, streams [striːm, striːmz] [n. C]
stream, streams [striːm, striːmz] [n. C]

prąd wody

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498209690251_0
tacking [ˈtæk.ɪŋ] [n. U]
tacking [ˈtæk.ɪŋ] [n. U]

zwrot przez sztag

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498209749262_0
the eye of the wind [ðə aɪ əv ðə wɪnd] [phrase]
the eye of the wind [ðə aɪ əv ðə wɪnd] [phrase]

linia wiatru

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498209928963_0
trim, trims [trɪm, trɪmz] [n. C]
trim, trims [trɪm, trɪmz] [n. C]

pogłębienie statku

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498210013956_0
true wind, true winds [truː wɪnd, truː wɪndz] [n. C or U]
true wind, true winds [truː wɪnd, truː wɪndz] [n. C or U]

wiatr rzeczywisty

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498210490667_0
turn, turns [tɜːn, tɜːnz] [n. C]
turn, turns [tɜːn, tɜːnz] [n. C]

obrót

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498210576520_0
turn the bow upwind [tɜːn ðə baʊ ˌʌpˈwɪnd] [phrase]
turn the bow upwind [tɜːn ðə baʊ ˌʌpˈwɪnd] [phrase]

dziób pod wiatr

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498210657168_0
wind, winds [wɪnd, wɪndz] [n. C or U]
wind, winds [wɪnd, wɪndz] [n. C or U]

wiatr

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498210726695_0
wind direction, wind directions [wɪnd daɪˈrek.ʃən, wɪnd daɪˈrek.ʃənz] [n. C]
wind direction, wind directions [wɪnd daɪˈrek.ʃən, wɪnd daɪˈrek.ʃənz] [n. C]

kierunek wiatru

m88f1b8b3917c19ff_1498210794840_0
windward ship, windward ships [ˈwɪnd.wəd ʃɪp, ˈwɪnd.wəd ʃɪps] [n. C]
windward ship, windward ships [ˈwɪnd.wəd ʃɪp, ˈwɪnd.wəd ʃɪps] [n. C]

statek nawietrzny