the rules related to making sounds with musical instruments,
to determine the frequency of sounds created with musical instruments in English.
Answer the introductory questions.
What is the wave interference?
What conditions must be met to create a standing wavestanding wavestanding wave?
What are the nodes and the antinodes of a standing wave?
What are the harmonic waves of a standing wave?
Please, prepare the answers to the following questions.
1. What is a musical instrumentmusical instrumentmusical instrument?
A musical instrumentmusical instrumentmusical instrument is any object that produces sound, and this sound is used to create music.
2. What can be the source of sound in musical instruments?
Because the vibrating bodies are the source of sounds, the essential element of every musical instrument must be the body that vibrates with the right frequency. This body can be a stringstringstring in stringed instruments or a column of air in brass instrumentsbrass instrumentsbrass instruments, a membrane of loudspeaker or drum, a resilient piece of metal in music boxes or cymbals, etc.
3. Classify musical instruments according to the way the sound is created.
Various classifications and systematics of musical instruments are introduced in science. In this lesson, we limit the description to two popular types of instruments, i.e. stringstringstring and brass instrumentsbrass instrumentsbrass instruments.
The standing wavestanding wavestanding wave can be created in vibrating strings as well as an air column (so‑called pipes).
The following types of fifes can be distinguished:
open on both ends,
closed on both ends,
closed on one ends,
4. Present standing waves which are created in stringed instruments.
If a string of, e.g. guitar, is the source of the sound, then the instrument is a stringed instrument.
In places where the stringstringstring is attached, the nodes of the wave are formed.
Possible sample shapes of standing waves in a tight string with length L.
5. What is the fundamental frequency of a vibrating string, rigidly attached on both ends?
The length of the transverse wave on the stringstringstring is not equal to the length of the sound wave due to the differences in the propagation velocities of both waves in both media.
6. Present in the graphs the share of individual harmonic components in creating the timbre of the sound.
When a vibrating column of air is the source of sound, then we talk about fifes. Depending on the construction of the instrument, fifes can be closed on both ends, open on both ends or semi‑open.
Frequency of vibrations of air column in fifes
7. Present the standing waves which occur in the fife which is open on both ends.
The fifefifefife is open on both ends.
8. What is the fundamental frequency of a vibrating air column in the fifefifefife open at both ends?
The situation is analogous to that of a tight stringstringstring attached on both ends.
9. Present the standing waves created in the fifefifefife closed at both ends.
The fife is closed at both ends.
10. What is the fundamental frequency of a vibrating air column in a fife closed at both ends?
The situation is analogous to that of a tight string attached at both ends.
11. Present the standing waves created in the fifefifefife closed at one end.
Fife closed at one end.
12. What is the fundamental frequency of a vibrating air column in the fifefifefife closed at one end?
Vibration frequency in this case.
Click on the selected instrument and its name will appear.
The vibrating body such as a stringstringstring, an air column, a membrane, etc. is the basic element of every musical instrumentmusical instrumentmusical instrument. They create standing waves, which are the result of superposition of waves which move in opposite directions and consist of:
nodes - places where the particles of the medium do not vibrate,
antinodes - places where the amplitude of vibration of the medium particles is maximal.
The distance between two neighbouring nodes is equal to half the wavelength running in the medium.
The pitch (frequency) of the sound emitted by the instrument depends on the longest (basic) wave that can be created in a vibrating element and is related to the size of this element.
In brass instrumentsbrass instrumentsbrass instruments the longer pipe corresponds to the lower basic frequency, and thus the lower sound.
In stringed instruments, the pitch of the sound depends on:
stringstringstring length, longer length - lower sound,
string thickness, thinner string - higher sound,
string tensile, greater tensile force - higher sound.
The guitar has six strings. If we do not press them at any fret, they will produce the following sounds respectively:
E (82,6 Hz)
A (110 Hz)
D (146,7 Hz)
G (195,6 Hz)
H (246,9 Hz)
E (330 Hz)
Will it cause any vibration on the other strings, if we play the empty string A? If so, which ones? Linit your vibration analysis to the first 4 harmonics.
Yes. The 3Indeks górny rdrd harmonic of string A will stimulate the vibration of the string E, because:
The stringstringstring A of the guitar (the second one), oscillating freely (not pressed on any fret), produces A sound with the frequency of 110 Hz.
What will be the frequency of the created sound, if we press the string on the 12th fret, at the same time the string is shortened to the half of its original length? What would you have to do with the guitar string to get the same effect without shortening the string?
Write a short answer to the above question in English.
piszczałka obustronnie zamknięta
piszczałka jednostronnie zamknięta
piszczałka obustronnie otwarta
musical instrumentmusical instrumentmusical instrument
standing wavestanding wavestanding wave
Czy można przechwycić obraz? Jak się nie zgubić w chmurze? Jak z problemu zrobić algorytm? Dowiesz się z e-podręcznika.
Jak edytować zdjęcie na warstwach? Czy szablony są przydatne? Dlaczego warto sprawdzać licencje na oprogramowanie? Poszukaj odpowiedzi w e-podręczniku.
Język polskiKlasa IV
Piąta strona świata
Jak zaszyfrować wiadomość? Gdzie pada śnieżek niebieski? Czy lustro może służyć do obrony? Odpowiedzi na te pytania szukaj w e-podręczniku.
Język polskiKlasa V
Piąta strona świata
Jak hrabia pije chińską herbatę? Czy miłość może być wieczysta? Co wyrasta na nieboskłonie? Poszukaj odpowiedzi w e-podręczniku.