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Planning cattle feeding

1. Film in the standard version.

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moduł 16.2

2. Film with subtitles.

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3. Film with subtitles and pauses. Listen and repeat after the speaker.

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4. Film with subtitles and narration.

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Exercise 1
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ćwiczenie 1
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Health and safety in animal production

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moduł 16.2, Every year about 12% of all accidents in agriculture involves the handling of farm animals. At least 3 people are killed every year! The basis for working with animals safely is to provide them with the proper welfare. This means creating the right living conditions and enabling them to demonstrate natural behaviour. Caring for personal hygiene reduces the risk of zoonoses. Large livestock buildings should include hygienic and sanitary rooms. It is obligatory to use protective clothing when working with animals. Poisonous gases such as hydrogen sulphide and methane are collected in slurry and liquid manure tanks. Using these tanks requires special care. Feed, manure and pre-herding passages should not intersect. Their width should allow enough room for working . Troughs, mangers and waterers should be placed so that handlers do not have to enter animal stalls.When moving between animals, you should signal your presence in voice or by touch. This will avoid scaring animals and their unexpected response, which poses a threat. Use special safety precautions when working with some animals.Bulls are particularly dangerous, and should have a nose ring and be lead with a stick. During some treatments, animals should be immobilized by the use of a crush.
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Animal welfare

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moduł 16.2
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The ABC of animal production organization

The text consist of a fragment of a dictionary / index of terms in the field of animal production organization.

Animal cullingm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575093456_0Animal culling - removing the animals that do not meet the breeders criteria from the herd.

Good manufacturing practicem6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575108607_0Good manufacturing practice - the set of actions that must be taken and the conditions that must be met in order for food and materials used in food production ensure a healthy, quality food product.

Livestock unitm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575136947_0Livestock unit (LU) - a reference unit for animals weighing 500 kg; animal conversion is done using coefficients.

Extensive rearingm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575161034_0Extensive rearing - product manufacturing by increasing the number of animals rather than by using measures to increase the productivity of the animals.

Stock turnoverm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575222072_0Stock turnover - quantitative and qualitative changes within the herd of animals in a given period.Stocking density is the amount of LU per 100 ha of agricultural land.

Selection herdm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575266272_0Selection herd - a group of the best animals selected from the herd for the purpose of becoming parents of the next generation.

Livestock structurem6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575307127_0Livestock structure - percentage share of individual herds in the total number of animals expressed in livestock units (LU).

Herd structurem6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575322706_0Herd structure- percentage share of the average number of animals of a specific type in the whole herd.

Manure unitm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575370924_0Manure unit - an animal (unit) that supplies 10 tons of manure per year. This type of conversion calculates the manure production on the farm.

Feed unitm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575395185_0Feed unit - a livestock unit consuming an average of 3.5 thousand grain units per year.

Use valuem6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575422771_0Use value- the animal's ability to produce. Use value is measured by the amount of product obtained over a certain period of time, e.g. the quantity of milk during the lactation period, annual wool yield, etc.

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Exercise 2
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ćwiczenie 3
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Animal production versus environment

A dialogue between a farmer (F) and an employee (E) of the Inspectorate for Environmental Protection during farm inspection. The inspector asks questions about the manner and place of collection of animal excrements, the amount of natural fertilizers used in fields that may adversely affect the environment. The farmer gives answers.

E: Good morning.

F: Good morning. How can I help you?

E: I am an employee of the Inspectorate for Environmental Protectionm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575996498_0the Inspectorate for Environmental Protection and I would like to carry out an inspection on your farm.

F: Please, come in. What does this inspection concern?

E: I would like to see if the animal production department has any negative impact on the environment.

F: Come in!

E: How many animals are there in your swine herd at the moment?

F: This is calculated as 100livestock unitsm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498575136947_0livestock units.

E: What groups of animals make up the herd?

F: I run a closed production cyclem6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576024192_0closed production cycle, so I have different groups.

E: Where do you store the feed?

F: I store the grain in a funnel silom6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576066905_0funnel silo, and the feed I purchase is used on a regular basis.

E: Do you run a rational animal wastem6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576095713_0animal waste management?

F: Yes, I own my own land, where I spill slurry and spread manure.

E: Where do you store manure?

F: I put it on a manure padm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576124808_0manure pad. The water solution of manurem6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576174818_0water solution of manure is discharged into a closed tank.

E: What doses of slurry are you using?

F: Maximum 50 m3 per hectare. Due to this , I do not exceed 170 kg of nitrogen per hectare.

E: This is in line with good farming practice.

F: In order to set supplemental doses of mineral fertilizers I use the fertilizer optimizer modulem6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576202253_0fertilizer optimizer module of the BigPig program.

E: The agricultural use of slurry is not easy.

F: Yes. Applying too high a dose can damage the plants.

E: This is not the only effect of overfertilisation with slurry.

F: Is there any other?

E: Yes. Slurry contains a lot of nitrogen and phosphorus causing eutrophication of water reservoirsm6950b3c8d51666cb_1530098677152_0eutrophication of water reservoirs. Nitrogen can enter the groundwater and contaminate well waterm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576284771_0well water.

F: My farm has no such effect!

E: What about air pollution?

F: Some emissionsm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576298275_0emissions can not be avoided. However, the efficient ventilation systemm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576334358_0ventilation system of livestock buildingsm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576347473_0livestock buildings and lack of deep beddingm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576383645_0deep bedding limit their formation.

E: I will include in the report the solutions you are using on the farm.

Exercise 3
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Livestock breeding

The text is part of an article in the trade journal. It discusses ways to mate cows, providing their advantages and disadvantages. It emphasizes that insemination allows for the best use of breeding value of bulls.

There are two basic methods of reproducing cattle: natural matingm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576783161_0natural mating and artificial inseminationm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576812127_0artificial insemination.

Natural mating refers to mating a cow and a bull, which gives semenm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576858334_0semen directly to the female reproductive systemm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576873814_0reproductive system. Depending on how the mating is organized, there is selective breedingm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576921721_0selective breeding, harem breedingm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576934140_0harem breeding and free matingm6950b3c8d51666cb_1527596260965_0free mating.

Selective breeding - under the supervision of a man, the bull is individually admitted to the cow exhibiting symptoms of estrous cyclem6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576957227_0estrous cycle.

Harem breeding - the bull is constantly with a group of about 30 cows and heifersm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576972103_0heifers, covering females in the estrous cycle;

Free matingm6950b3c8d51666cb_1527596260965_0Free mating - a group of bulls reside with large herds of cows.

Artificialinseminationm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498576992164_0insemination (insemination) involves the introduction of a bull semen, taken from the artificial vaginam6950b3c8d51666cb_1498577019566_0artificial vagina, into the female reproductive system by means of a pipette. Semen taken from the bulls is, after thorough examination, diluted and delivered in this form for the insemination of cows. As a result of the dilution, one ejaculate can inseminate a dozen cows.

Advantages of insemination:

- the ability to use the beststudsm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498577056267_0studs (one father produces a few or tens of thousands of offspring a year, not dozens - as in natural mating), which influences the acceleration of breeding progressm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498577086179_0breeding progress,

- enabling, through semen conservation in liquid nitrogen, bull testing and using only animals positively labeled,

- reducing the number of studs, which allows for feed and stalls saving,

- the possibility of individual selection of pairs,

- unlimited preservation time for semen, giving you the ability to create gene banksm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498577098241_0gene banks, i.e. preserving the gene poolm6950b3c8d51666cb_1498577123398_0gene pool needed for all types of breeding.

Breeding value information for bulls is available in an electronic version. It is used when pairing couples. A special computer programs are used for this.

Exercise 4
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ćwiczenie 5
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Organisation of poultry production

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moduł 16.2
Exercise 5
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Picture

Look at the picture. List the elements you can see and remember their names.

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Take a look at the division of feed used in ruminant feeding. Remember and repeat their names.

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Take a look at the illustration and list the factors affecting the number of eggs obtained from laying hens

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Exercise 6
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Exercise 7
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Game

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Dictionary

animal culling (n. U) ˈænɪmᵊl ˈkʌlɪŋ
animal culling (n. U) ˈænɪmᵊl ˈkʌlɪŋ

brakowanie zwierząt

animal waste (n. U) ˈænɪmᵊl weɪst
animal waste (n. U) ˈænɪmᵊl weɪst

odchody zwierzęce

animals handling (n. U) ˈænɪməlz ˈhændlɪŋ
animals handling (n. U) ˈænɪməlz ˈhændlɪŋ

obsługa zwierząt

animals welfare (n. U) ˈænɪməlz ˈwelfeə
animals welfare (n. U) ˈænɪməlz ˈwelfeə

dobrostan zwierząt

anxiety (n. U) æŋˈzaɪəti
anxiety (n. U) æŋˈzaɪəti

niepokój

artificial insemination (n. U) ˌɑːtɪˈfɪʃᵊl ɪnˌsemɪˈneɪʃᵊn
artificial insemination (n. U) ˌɑːtɪˈfɪʃᵊl ɪnˌsemɪˈneɪʃᵊn

sztuczne unasienianie

artificial vagina (n. C) ˌɑːtɪˈfɪʃᵊl vəˈdʒaɪnə
artificial vagina (n. C) ˌɑːtɪˈfɪʃᵊl vəˈdʒaɪnə

sztuczna pochwa

behaviour (n. C, U) bɪˈheɪvjə
behaviour (n. C, U) bɪˈheɪvjə

zachowania behawioralne

breeding farm (n. C) ˈbriːdɪŋ fɑːm
breeding farm (n. C) ˈbriːdɪŋ fɑːm

ferma zarodowa

breeding incubator (n. C) ˈbriːdɪŋ ˈɪŋkjʊbeɪtə
breeding incubator (n. C) ˈbriːdɪŋ ˈɪŋkjʊbeɪtə

inkubator lęgowy

breeding progress (n. U) ˈbriːdɪŋ ˈprəʊɡres
breeding progress (n. U) ˈbriːdɪŋ ˈprəʊɡres

postęp hodowlany

carbohydrate feed (n. U) ˌkɑːbəʊˈhaɪdreɪt fiːd
carbohydrate feed (n. U) ˌkɑːbəʊˈhaɪdreɪt fiːd

pasza węglowodanowa

chaff (n. U) tʃɑːf
chaff (n. U) tʃɑːf

plewy

chronic stress (n. C, U) ˈkrɒnɪk stres
chronic stress (n. C, U) ˈkrɒnɪk stres

przewlekły stres

closed cycle (n. C) kləʊzd ˈsaɪkl
closed cycle (n. C) kləʊzd ˈsaɪkl

cykl zamknięty

commercial production (n. U) kəˈmɜːʃᵊl prəˈdʌkʃᵊn
commercial production (n. U) kəˈmɜːʃᵊl prəˈdʌkʃᵊn

produkcja towarowa

complete feedstuff (n. C) kəmˈpliːt ˌfiːdstʌf
complete feedstuff (n. C) kəmˈpliːt ˌfiːdstʌf

mieszanka pełnoporcjowa

crush (n. C) krʌʃ
crush (n. C) krʌʃ

poskrom

deep bedding (n. U) diːp ˈbedɪŋ
deep bedding (n. U) diːp ˈbedɪŋ

głęboka ściółka

diagnosis (n. C, U) ˌdaɪəɡˈnəʊsɪs
diagnosis (n. C, U) ˌdaɪəɡˈnəʊsɪs

diagnostyka

egg hatching (n. U) ˈeɡ hætʃɪŋ
egg hatching (n. U) ˈeɡ hætʃɪŋ

wylęg

egg yield (n. C) ˈeɡ jiːld
egg yield (n. C) ˈeɡ jiːld

nieśność

ejaculate (n. U) iˈdʒækjəleɪt
ejaculate (n. U) iˈdʒækjəleɪt

ejakulat

emission (n. C, U) ɪˈmɪʃᵊn
emission (n. C, U) ɪˈmɪʃᵊn

emisja

emotional state (n. C) ɪˈməʊʃᵊnᵊl steɪt
emotional state (n. C) ɪˈməʊʃᵊnᵊl steɪt

stan emocjonalny

ensilage process (n. C) ˈenᵗsəlɪdʒ ˈprəʊses
ensilage process (n. C) ˈenᵗsəlɪdʒ ˈprəʊses

zakiszanie

estrous cycle (n. C) ˈiːstrəs ˈsaɪkl
estrous cycle (n. C) ˈiːstrəs ˈsaɪkl

ruja

eutrophication of water reservoirs (n. U) ˌjuːtrəfɪˈkeɪʃᵊn ɒv ˈwɔːtə ˈrezəvwɑːz
eutrophication of water reservoirs (n. U) ˌjuːtrəfɪˈkeɪʃᵊn ɒv ˈwɔːtə ˈrezəvwɑːz

eutrofizacja zbiorników

extensive rearing (n. U) ɪkˈstensɪv ˌrɪərɪŋ
extensive rearing (n. U) ɪkˈstensɪv ˌrɪərɪŋ

ekstensywny chów

fear (n. C, U) fɪə
fear (n. C, U) fɪə

strach

feed mill (n. C) fiːd mɪl
feed mill (n. C) fiːd mɪl

mieszalnia pasz

feed passage (n. C) ˈfiːd ˌpæsɪdʒ
feed passage (n. C) ˈfiːd ˌpæsɪdʒ

korytarz paszowy

feed unit (n. C) fiːd ˈjuːnɪt
feed unit (n. C) fiːd ˈjuːnɪt

sztuki żywieniowe

fertilizer optimizer module (n. C, U) ˈfɜːtɪlaɪzə ˈɒptɪmaɪzə ˈmɒdjuːl
fertilizer optimizer module (n. C, U) ˈfɜːtɪlaɪzə ˈɒptɪmaɪzə ˈmɒdjuːl

moduł optymalizacji nawozowej

food dose (n. C) fuːd ˈdəʊs
food dose (n. C) fuːd ˈdəʊs

dawka pokarmowa

freedom from hunger, thirst and malnutrition (phrase) ˈfriːdəm frɒm ˈhʌŋɡə θɜːst ənd ˌmælnjuːˈtrɪʃᵊn
freedom from hunger, thirst and malnutrition (phrase) ˈfriːdəm frɒm ˈhʌŋɡə θɜːst ənd ˌmælnjuːˈtrɪʃᵊn

wolność od głodu, pragnienia i niedożywienia,

freedom from pain, traumas and diseases (phrase) ˈfriːdəm frɒm peɪn ˈtrɔːməz ənd dɪˈziːzɪz
freedom from pain, traumas and diseases (phrase) ˈfriːdəm frɒm peɪn ˈtrɔːməz ənd dɪˈziːzɪz

wolność od bólu, urazów i chorób,

funnel silo (n. C) ˈfʌnᵊl ˈsaɪləʊ
funnel silo (n. C) ˈfʌnᵊl ˈsaɪləʊ

silos lejowy

gene bank (n. C) dʒiːn bæŋk
gene bank (n. C) dʒiːn bæŋk

bank genowy

gene pool (n. C) dʒiːn puːl
gene pool (n. C) dʒiːn puːl

pula genów

good manufacturing practice (n. C) ɡʊd ˌmænjəˈfæktʃᵊrɪŋ ˈpræktɪs
good manufacturing practice (n. C) ɡʊd ˌmænjəˈfæktʃᵊrɪŋ ˈpræktɪs

dobra praktyka produkcyjna

HACCP - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points System (n. C) eɪtʃ eɪ siː siː piː - ˈhæzəd əˈnæləsɪs ənd ˈkrɪtɪkᵊl kənˈtrəʊl pɔɪnts ˈsɪstəm
HACCP - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points System (n. C) eɪtʃ eɪ siː siː piː - ˈhæzəd əˈnæləsɪs ənd ˈkrɪtɪkᵊl kənˈtrəʊl pɔɪnts ˈsɪstəm

HACCP

harem breeding (n. U) ˈhɑːriːm ˈbriːdɪŋ
harem breeding (n. U) ˈhɑːriːm ˈbriːdɪŋ

krycie haremowe

hatch (v.) hætʃ
hatch (v.) hætʃ

wyklucie

heifer (n. C) ˈhefə
heifer (n. C) ˈhefə

jałowica

herd structure (n. C, U) hɜːd ˈstrʌktʃə
herd structure (n. C, U) hɜːd ˈstrʌktʃə

struktura stada

high protein feed (n. U) haɪ ˈprəʊtiːn fiːd
high protein feed (n. U) haɪ ˈprəʊtiːn fiːd

pasza wysokobiałkowa

hydrogen sulphide (n. C, U) ˈhaɪdrədʒən ˈsʌlfaɪd
hydrogen sulphide (n. C, U) ˈhaɪdrədʒən ˈsʌlfaɪd

siarkowodór

hygienic and sanitary room (n. C) haɪˈdʒiːnɪk ənd ˈsænɪtᵊri ruːm
hygienic and sanitary room (n. C) haɪˈdʒiːnɪk ənd ˈsænɪtᵊri ruːm

pomieszczenie higieniczno‑sanitarne

insemination (n. U) ɪnˌsemɪˈneɪʃᵊn
insemination (n. U) ɪnˌsemɪˈneɪʃᵊn

inseminacja

lactic acid (n. C, U) ˌlæktɪk ˈæsɪd
lactic acid (n. C, U) ˌlæktɪk ˈæsɪd

kwas mlekowy

laying hens condition (n. C) ˈleɪɪŋ henz kənˈdɪʃᵊn
laying hens condition (n. C) ˈleɪɪŋ henz kənˈdɪʃᵊn

stan niosek

light program (n. C) laɪt ˈprəʊɡræm
light program (n. C) laɪt ˈprəʊɡræm

program świetlny

livestock building (n. C) ˈlaɪvstɒk ˈbɪldɪŋ
livestock building (n. C) ˈlaɪvstɒk ˈbɪldɪŋ

pomieszczenie inwentarskie

livestock structure (n. C, U) ˈlaɪvstɒk ˈstrʌktʃə
livestock structure (n. C, U) ˈlaɪvstɒk ˈstrʌktʃə

struktura inwentarza żywego

livestock unit (n. C) ˈlaɪvstɒk ˈjuːnɪt
livestock unit (n. C) ˈlaɪvstɒk ˈjuːnɪt

duża jednostka przeliczeniowa

living conditions (n. plural) ˈlɪvɪŋ kənˈdɪʃənz
living conditions (n. plural) ˈlɪvɪŋ kənˈdɪʃənz

warunki bytowe, warunki utrzymania

manure pad (n. C) məˈnjʊə pæd
manure pad (n. C) məˈnjʊə pæd

płyta gnojowa

manure passage (n. C) məˈnjʊə ˈpæsɪdʒ
manure passage (n. C) məˈnjʊə ˈpæsɪdʒ

korytarz gnojowy

manure unit (n. C) məˈnjʊə ˈjuːnɪt
manure unit (n. C) məˈnjʊə ˈjuːnɪt

sztuka obornikowa

mental suffering (n. C, U) ˈmentᵊl ˈsʌfərɪŋ
mental suffering (n. C, U) ˈmentᵊl ˈsʌfərɪŋ

psychiczne cierpienie

methane (n. U) ˈmiːθeɪn
methane (n. U) ˈmiːθeɪn

metan

microbiological preparation (n. C) ˌmaɪkrəʊˌbaɪəˈlɒdʒikᵊl ˌprepᵊrˈeɪʃᵊn
microbiological preparation (n. C) ˌmaɪkrəʊˌbaɪəˈlɒdʒikᵊl ˌprepᵊrˈeɪʃᵊn

preparat mikrobiologiczny

mineral blend (n. C) ˈmɪnᵊrᵊl blend
mineral blend (n. C) ˈmɪnᵊrᵊl blend

mieszanka mineralna

mortality (n. U) mɔːˈtæləti
mortality (n. U) mɔːˈtæləti

padnięcia

natural mating (n. U) ˈnætʃᵊrᵊl ˈmeɪtɪŋ
natural mating (n. U) ˈnætʃᵊrᵊl ˈmeɪtɪŋ

krycie naturalne

nose ring (n. C) nəʊz rɪŋ
nose ring (n. C) nəʊz rɪŋ

kółko nosowe

packer (n. C) ˈpæk.ə
packer (n. C) ˈpæk.ə

pakowalnia

physical discomfort (n. C, U) ˈfɪzɪkᵊl dɪˈskʌmfət
physical discomfort (n. C, U) ˈfɪzɪkᵊl dɪˈskʌmfət

dyskomfort fizyczny

pre‑herding passage (n. C) priːhɜːdɪŋ ˈpæsɪdʒ
pre‑herding passage (n. C) priːhɜːdɪŋ ˈpæsɪdʒ

korytarz przepędowy

premix (n. C) ˈpriːmɪks
premix (n. C) ˈpriːmɪks

premiks

prophylaxis (n. U) ˌprɒfəˈlæksɪs
prophylaxis (n. U) ˌprɒfəˈlæksɪs

profilaktyka

protective clothing (n. U) prəˈtektɪv ˈkləʊðɪŋ
protective clothing (n. U) prəˈtektɪv ˈkləʊðɪŋ

odzież ochronna

puberty (n. U) ˈpjuːbəti
puberty (n. U) ˈpjuːbəti

dojrzewanie płciowe

recipe of nutritive mix (n. C) ˈresɪpi əv ˈnjuːtrətɪv mɪks
recipe of nutritive mix (n. C) ˈresɪpi əv ˈnjuːtrətɪv mɪks

receptura mieszanki

reproductive system (n. C) ˌriːprəˈdʌktɪv ˈsɪstəm
reproductive system (n. C) ˌriːprəˈdʌktɪv ˈsɪstəm

drogi rodne

selection herd (n. C) sɪˈlekʃᵊn hɜːd
selection herd (n. C) sɪˈlekʃᵊn hɜːd

stado selekcyjne

selective breeding (n. U) sɪˈlektɪv ˈbriːdɪŋ
selective breeding (n. U) sɪˈlektɪv ˈbriːdɪŋ

krycie z ręki

semen (n. U) ˈsiːmən
semen (n. U) ˈsiːmən

nasienie

sexing (n. U) ˈseksɪŋ
sexing (n. U) ˈseksɪŋ

seksowanie

silage additive (n. C) ˈsaɪlɪdʒ ˈædɪtɪvz
silage additive (n. C) ˈsaɪlɪdʒ ˈædɪtɪvz

dodatek do kiszonki

soybean meal (n. U) ˈsɔɪˌbin mɪəl
soybean meal (n. U) ˈsɔɪˌbin mɪəl

śruta sojowa

stock turnover (n. C, U) stɒk ˈtɜːnˌəʊvə
stock turnover (n. C, U) stɒk ˈtɜːnˌəʊvə

obrót stada

stocking density (n. C, U) ˈstɒkɪŋ ˈdensɪti
stocking density (n. C, U) ˈstɒkɪŋ ˈdensɪti

obsada zwierząt, obsada ptaków

storehouse (n. C) ˈstɔː.haʊs
storehouse (n. C) ˈstɔː.haʊs

zbiornica

stud (n. C) stʌd
stud (n. C) stʌd

reproduktor

the Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (n. C) ðiː ɪnˈspektᵊrət fɔː ɪnˌvaɪərᵊnˈmentᵊl prəˈtekʃᵊn
the Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (n. C) ðiː ɪnˈspektᵊrət fɔː ɪnˌvaɪərᵊnˈmentᵊl prəˈtekʃᵊn

Inspekcja Ochrony Środowiska

thermal discomfort (n. C, U) ˈθɜːmᵊl dɪˈskʌmfət
thermal discomfort (n. C, U) ˈθɜːmᵊl dɪˈskʌmfət

dyskomfort termiczny

treatment (n. U) ˈtriːtmənt
treatment (n. U) ˈtriːtmənt

leczenie

use value (n. C, U) juːz ˈvæljuː
use value (n. C, U) juːz ˈvæljuː

wartość użytkowa

ventilation system (n. C) ˌventɪˈleɪʃᵊn ˈsɪstəm
ventilation system (n. C) ˌventɪˈleɪʃᵊn ˈsɪstəm

system wentylacji

water solution of manure (n. C) ˈwɔːtə səˈluːʃᵊn ɒv məˈnjʊə
water solution of manure (n. C) ˈwɔːtə səˈluːʃᵊn ɒv məˈnjʊə

woda gnojowa

well water (n. U) wel ˈwɔːtə
well water (n. U) wel ˈwɔːtə

woda studzienna

zoonosis (n. C, plural zoonoses) ˌzuːəˈnəʊsɪs
zoonosis (n. C, plural zoonoses) ˌzuːəˈnəʊsɪs

choroba odzwierzęca