Lesson plan (Polish)
during the decomposition of proteins in the body, toxic substances are formed;
one of the functions of the circulatory system is to take the excretory products from the cells.
to describe the condition of the organism on the basis of a general urinalysis;
to demonstrate that urinalysis is one of the basic diagnostic examinations;
to list the causes of urinary tract diseases;
to explain the prevention of urinary tract diseases;
to discuss the course and importance of dialysis.
Urinalysis is one of the basic non‑invasive diagnostic examinations. It provides important information on the state of human health and enables the detection of many diseases. The analysed main parameters of urine include:
daily excretion of urine – decreased excretion may have many causes, e.g. small amounts of consumed liquids, fever, diarrhoea; increased excretion of urine may occur in case of consumption of large amounts of fluids, diuretics, high protein diet or kidney failure;
colour – the change in colour occurs, for example, due to the influence of dyes contained in food (e.g. in beetroot) and in the course of liver diseases;
reaction – the correct reaction is between 4.5 -7.5 pH; less than 4.5 pH for a diet containing a lot of protein and more than 7.5 pH for a diet consisting of products of plant origin; incorrect reactions values may also indicate bacterial infection or the presence of kidney stones.
The urine of a healthy person should not contain:
bacteria – only a trace amount is allowed; larger amounts may be a sign of a bacterial infection, incorrect sampling of urine or incorrect storage of urine;
glucose – its presence in urine may indicate the inability of the kidneys to recover sugar from primary urine or an increased level of blood sugar (diabetes);
red blood cells – appear in urine in the event of kidney damage, urethritis or inflammation of other discharge organs;
proteins – their presence may be caused by a great physical effort, fever or a renal corpuscles damage.
Explain why the urine sample should be examined shortly after sampling and why the vessel to which it is collected should be sterile.
Urinary tract diseases
Bacterial infections of the urinary tract (nephritis, cystitis and urethritis) can result from chronic untreated pharyngitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis and teeth infection. Poor hygiene habits are conducive to faecal bacteria‑induced urethritis and cystitis. They are more common among women than men because their urethra is shorter and close to the anus. On the other hand, men are more likely to suffer from kidney stones. In the kidneys formed are different‑size urinary calculi, insoluble salt deposits, which block the urinary tract and cause severe pain when moving towards the urinary bladder. The treatment consists in their removal. The calculi may be crushed with ultrasound and excreted with urine.
In case of permanent kidney damage, urea, excess water and mineral salts as well as harmful excretory products accumulate in the blood, which leads to poisoning of the organism. It is then necessary to cleanse the organism with a procedure called dialysisdialysisdialysis. It consists in circulating the patient’s blood through a dialyserdialyserdialyser (artificial kidney), which replaces the nephrone. The procedure lasts from 4 to 8 hours and must be repeated 2‑3 times a week.
Think what physical process is used in a dialyser to remove excess water from blood.
Prevention of urinary tract diseases
To prevent bacterial infections of the urinary tract, it is necessary to:
take care of daily hygiene and frequently change underwear; this reduces the risk of bacteria penetrating the urinary tract;
wear loose, breathable underwear to prevent abrasions and reduce the risk of infection;
protect the body, especially the kidneys, from cooling, which prevents the loss of immunity;
in the event of pharyngitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, cure the disease and eliminate the source of bacteria;
ensure that the bladder is emptied regularly; this prevents the accumulation and growth of bacteria in the bladder.
The proper functioning of the urinary tract is also influenced by a diet. It is necessary to limit the intake of salt, products containing a lot of oxalates (sorrel, rhubarb) and calcium, which is very dangerous for people with chronic kidney disease. These compounds impede the reabsorption of water and promote the formation of deposits and stones. It is important to drink 2‑2.5 litres of liquid a day. In this way, deposits of mineral salts and bacteria are washed away. Water shortages lead to the production of dense urine and can cause kidney damage.
It is believed that beer drinking has a beneficial effect on kidney functioning. Give arguments for and against this belief.
Explain how the following listed activities may affect the condition of the kidneys and the urinary tract:
swimming in a public swimming pool;
eating large quantities of salty food;
wandering in the heat without replenishing fluids.
Urinalysis is one of the basic diagnostic examinations;
Kidney disease may lead to poisoning of the organism and death.
Blood of the patient suffering from chronic kidney disease is dialysed.
Factors causing kidney diseases include, among others, pathogenic micro‑organisms and a poor diet.
Match the pairs: English words with Polish definition.
sztuczna nerka; urządzenie, które oczyszcza krew z produktów przemiany materii u chorych cierpiących na niewydolność nerek, zabieg oczyszczania krwi, podczas którego krew pacjenta z niewydolnością nerek jest przepuszczana przez dializator (sztuczną nerkę) i oczyszczana ze wszystkich zbędnych oraz szkodliwych produktów przemiany materii
urine, urinalysis, urinary tract
dializa – zabieg oczyszczania krwi, podczas którego krew pacjenta z niewydolnością nerek jest przepuszczana przez dializator (sztuczną nerkę) i oczyszczana ze wszystkich zbędnych oraz szkodliwych produktów przemiany materii
dializator – sztuczna nerka; urządzenie, które oczyszcza krew z produktów przemiany materii u chorych cierpiących na niewydolność nerek