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E-resource FORESTRY

Źródło: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.

Forest planting

1. Film in the standard version.

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The film takes place in a forest. A forester informs the people planting trees how to correctly distribute roots during planting. She also explains how to make slits with a planting bar to plant one year old pine. Film rozgrywa się w lesie. Leśniczyna informuje sadzących o prawidłowym ułożeniu korzeni podczas sadzenia. Tłumaczy także, jak poprawnie wykonać szpary kosturem do sadzenia jednolatki sosny.

2. Film with subtitles.

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The film takes place in a forest. A forester informs the people planting trees how to correctly distribute roots during planting. She also explains how to make slits with a planting bar to plant one year old pine. Film rozgrywa się w lesie. Leśniczyna informuje sadzących o prawidłowym ułożeniu korzeni podczas sadzenia. Tłumaczy także, jak poprawnie wykonać szpary kosturem do sadzenia jednolatki sosny.
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3. Film with subtitles and pauses. Listen and repeat after the speaker.

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The film takes place in a forest. A forester informs the people planting trees how to correctly distribute roots during planting. She also explains how to make slits with a planting bar to plant one year old pine. Film rozgrywa się w lesie. Leśniczyna informuje sadzących o prawidłowym ułożeniu korzeni podczas sadzenia. Tłumaczy także, jak poprawnie wykonać szpary kosturem do sadzenia jednolatki sosny.
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4. Film with subtitles and narration.

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The film takes place in a forest. A forester informs the people planting trees how to correctly distribute roots during planting. She also explains how to make slits with a planting bar to plant one year old pine. Film rozgrywa się w lesie. Leśniczyna informuje sadzących o prawidłowym ułożeniu korzeni podczas sadzenia. Tłumaczy także, jak poprawnie wykonać szpary kosturem do sadzenia jednolatki sosny.
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classicmobile
Exercise 1
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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classicmobile
Exercise 2
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Obtaining seeds from cones

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The animation schematically presents the procedure of obtaining seeds from cones. Animacja w sposób schematyczny przedstawia procedurę pozyskiwania nasion z szyszek.
classicmobile
Exercise 3
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Preparing a nursery digger for work

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The animation presents a nursery digger and lists, one by one, what needs to be done before the equipment can be used. Animacja przedstawia wyorywacz szkółkarski oraz wymienia punkt po punkcie kolejne działania niezbędne przed przystąpieniem do pracy.
classicmobile
Exercise 4
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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The order of cultivation works in a forest nursery

The hypertext material is a fragment of an article from a trade magazine. The text shows the order of cultivation works, from sowing to the distribution of segregated seedlings on the surface.

Hipertekst jest fragmentem artykułu z czasopisma fachowego. Tekst przedstawia kolejność prac hodowlanych od siewu do wydania posegregowanych sadzonek na powierzchnię.

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The nursery productionm9dd1d165033a5946_1497279637332_0nursery production scheme of one‑year‑old and two‑year‑old seedlingsm9dd1d165033a5946_1497279718401_0seedlings of Scots pinem9dd1d165033a5946_1497279733582_0Scots pine

In autumn or early spring, the breeding needs are determined on the basis of pedological and soil fertility expertizesm9dd1d165033a5946_1497279738479_0pedological and soil fertility expertizes. First, starter fertilizationm9dd1d165033a5946_1497279743621_0starter fertilization is done. If necessary, the soil is limed. Fertilization must not be combined with liming. In April, seasoned seeds are sown. Thanks to the use of the sprinkling irrigationm9dd1d165033a5946_1497279748379_0sprinkling irrigation method, the swelling process is sped up, and, in turn, seed germination. Then, two sprayings against pathogensm9dd1d165033a5946_1497279753543_0pathogens are done. In May, the seedlingsm9dd1d165033a5946_1497279762480_0seedlings are monitored and sprayed against blackheartm9dd1d165033a5946_1497279767416_0blackheart. Around May 15th, the first weedingm9dd1d165033a5946_1497279772536_0weeding and foliage feedingm9dd1d165033a5946_1497279777622_0foliage feeding is done.

The last decade of June is when the first spraying against Lophodermium needle castm9dd1d165033a5946_1497279782995_0Lophodermium needle cast is done. Then, the next spraying is done after about 2‑4 weeks, and two more in August. Foliage feeding ends in September.

At the end of October, another spraying against Lophodermium needle cast is done. If autumn and the beginning of winter are warm, then the last spraying is done in December. After winter, in March of the following year, the one‑year‑old seedlings are dug out. They are sortedm9dd1d165033a5946_1497279787842_0sorted and handed over for planting.

The remaining seedlings intended for the production of two‑year‑old seedlings are subjected to root trimming in March and April. In the middle of May, they are weeded and sprinkled according to need.

In June, foliage feeding begins. It’s done twice a month, with reduced doses, but only when no fertilizer was applied in the previous year. In the last decade of June, the first spraying against Lophodermium needle cast is done. After 2‑4 weeks the next sprayings are done, ending in October or December (at the warm beginning of winter).

The production ends with digging out the seedlings in March and April. Then, the two‑year‑old seedlings are sorted and released for planting.

classicmobile
Exercise 5
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Renewals and afforestation

The hypertext material is a dialogue between a forester and an intern. The text explains the differences between afforestation and renewals.

Hipertext przedstawia dialog leśniczego z praktykantką. W tekście zostają wytłumaczone różnice pomiędzy zalesieniami a odnowieniami.

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Forester: Miss Agnes, we will revise the topic of renewals and afforestation today. Could you please list the differences between them?

Intern: Forest renewalm9dd1d165033a5946_1497292341857_0Forest renewal is the introduction of a new generation of forest in the place of the current tree stands. They are removed as part of planned management, salvage cuttingm9dd1d165033a5946_1497292338305_0salvage cutting, or as a result of natural disasters.

Forester: And afforestation?

Intern: Afforestationm9dd1d165033a5946_1497292330786_0Afforestation is the introduction of seedlings of tree and shrub forest species to previously unused areas, or areas used for agriculture.

Forester: Very good. I would add that there is a time limit for renewal of maximum 5 years. Usually, forest vegetation returns to a given area after 2 years. And how do we obtain the young generation, generativelym9dd1d165033a5946_1497292326285_0generatively or vegetatively?

Intern: Definitely generatively. Such a renewal is done by sowingm9dd1d165033a5946_1497292312053_0sowing or plantingm9dd1d165033a5946_1497292307534_0planting. Vegetative renewalm9dd1d165033a5946_1497292302003_0Vegetative renewalincludes renewal from sproutsm9dd1d165033a5946_1497292294450_0sprouts from trunks or bushes, stem cuttingsm9dd1d165033a5946_1497292283746_0stem cuttings, layersm9dd1d165033a5946_1497292278430_0layers, grafts, etc.

Forester: Successful renewal requires a lot of work from people and the use of the forces of nature. Therefore, we distinguish between naturalm9dd1d165033a5946_1497292272551_0natural and artificial renewalm9dd1d165033a5946_1497292265719_0artificial renewal. One of them is especially valuable and close to the heart of every forester.

Intern: I know. The definition is simple and short. Natural renewal happens spontaneously, by means of natural seedingm9dd1d165033a5946_1497292257697_0natural seeding, or from sprouts. A mature tree stand strives to produce a young generation by releasing seeds, or a tree. This is done by, for example, spontaneous sprouting. Artificial renewal involves seed sowing or seedling planting. Human work is essential here.

Forester: I’m impressed with your knowledge. Good work.

Intern: Thank you. I’m happy that I can acquire field knowledge from you.

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classicmobile
Exercise 6
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Forest care

The hypertext material is a monologue of a forester. The forester describes individual care treatments for specific growth stages of a tree stand: the types and appropriate times for a given treatment, soil care, early and late cleaning, early and late thinning.

Hipertekst jest monologiem leśniczego. Leśniczy omawia poszczególne czynności pielęgnacyjne dla określonych faz wzrostu drzewostanu: rodzaje i terminy, pielęgnacja gleby, czyszczenia wczesne, czyszczenia późne, trzebież wczesna i trzebież późna.

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Starting from the planting of a forest, carrying on until it reaches maturity, forest carem9dd1d165033a5946_1497302764422_0forest care is the most important and laborious activity. It covers a number of activities related to the maintenance of forest ecosystemsm9dd1d165033a5946_1497302754287_0forest ecosystems. The purpose of all of the treatments is to grow a forest of a suitable species composition, as well as trees of high technical quality. Immediately after planting, several treatments are performed. These are: loosening the soil, destroying weeds, improving the form of the trees. When young trees grow, they undergo early cleaningm9dd1d165033a5946_1497302748645_0early cleaning. Early cleaning is an intermediate cut done in cultivations that are up to about 10 years old. Undesired and redundant trees, whose presence may interfere with the growth of other, more important species, are removed. All treatment remnants are left in the forest. They enrich thelitterm9dd1d165033a5946_1497302736917_0litterlayer with necessary nutrients. After the trees grow enough to join their treetopsm9dd1d165033a5946_1497302733680_0treetops, late cleaningm9dd1d165033a5946_1497302728712_0late cleaningcan be done. This process takes place in sapling standsm9dd1d165033a5946_1497302618223_0sapling stands between the age of 10 and 20 years. Trees that are defective, redundant, or which exhibit disease symptoms, are removed. This process thins out the excessively thick parts of the forest. In the tree stands that are about 21‑40 years old, early thinningm9dd1d165033a5946_1497302614191_0early thinningis introduced. It’s a cut aiming at securing the most valuable trees. It’s done by supporting the highest quality trees and removing the harmful ones. Intermediate cuttingm9dd1d165033a5946_1531741089568_0Intermediate cutting done in the stands at the age of 41 - 90 years is called late thinningm9dd1d165033a5946_1497302609415_0late thinning. The aim of this treatment is to shorten the time that the trees need to reach cutting maturitym9dd1d165033a5946_1497302603612_0cutting maturityby intensifying the growth rate. This is achieved as a result of the so‑called forest thinningm9dd1d165033a5946_1497302598187_0forest thinning. This way, much more light is delivered to the soil. In addition, it prepares the tree stands for renewal.

classicmobile
Exercise 7
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Gallery

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Memory

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Play the game. Zagraj w grę.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Dictionary

afforestation [əfɒrɪˈsteɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
afforestation [əfɒrɪˈsteɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

zalesienie

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artificial renewal [ɑːtɪˈfɪʃ(ə)l rɪˈnjuːəl] [phrase]
artificial renewal [ɑːtɪˈfɪʃ(ə)l rɪˈnjuːəl] [phrase]

odnowienie sztuczne

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bed, beds [bɛd] [singular, noun]
bed, beds [bɛd] [singular, noun]

grzęda

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blackheart [blakhɑːt] [singular, noun]
blackheart [blakhɑːt] [singular, noun]

zgorzel

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blooming [ˈbluːmɪŋ] [singular, noun]
blooming [ˈbluːmɪŋ] [singular, noun]

kwitnienie

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branch cutter, branch cutters [brɑːn(t)ʃ ˈkʌtə] [singular, noun]
branch cutter, branch cutters [brɑːn(t)ʃ ˈkʌtə] [singular, noun]

przycinacz gałęzi

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bury [ˈbɛri] [verb]
bury [ˈbɛri] [verb]

zasypać

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carabiner, carabiners [ˌkarəˈbiːnə] [singular, noun]
carabiner, carabiners [ˌkarəˈbiːnə] [singular, noun]

karabinki

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climbing spike, climbing spikes [ˈklʌɪmɪŋ spʌɪk] [singular, noun]
climbing spike, climbing spikes [ˈklʌɪmɪŋ spʌɪk] [singular, noun]

włazy

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cone, cones [kəʊn] [singular, noun]
cone, cones [kəʊn] [singular, noun]

szyszka

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cutting maturity [ˈkʌtɪŋ məˈtʃʊərəti] [phrase]
cutting maturity [ˈkʌtɪŋ məˈtʃʊərəti] [phrase]

dojrzałość rębna

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depth [dɛpθ] [singular, noun]
depth [dɛpθ] [singular, noun]

głębokość

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digger, diggers [ˈdɪɡə] [singular, noun]
digger, diggers [ˈdɪɡə] [singular, noun]

wyorywacz

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498034373932_0
digging ['dɪgɪŋ] [singular, noun]
digging ['dɪgɪŋ] [singular, noun]

kopanie

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drying room, drying rooms ['draɪɪŋ ruːm] [singular, noun]
drying room, drying rooms ['draɪɪŋ ruːm] [singular, noun]

suszarnia

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early cleaning [ˈəːli ˈkliːnɪŋ] [phrase]
early cleaning [ˈəːli ˈkliːnɪŋ] [phrase]

czyszczenie wczesne

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early thinning [ˈəːli ˈθɪnɪŋ] [singular, noun]
early thinning [ˈəːli ˈθɪnɪŋ] [singular, noun]

trzebież wczesna

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fall [fɔːl] [verb]
fall [fɔːl] [verb]

opadać

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fascicle, fascicles [ˈfasɪk(ə)l] [singular, noun]
fascicle, fascicles [ˈfasɪk(ə)l] [singular, noun]

pęczek

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foliage feeding [ˈfəʊlɪɪdʒ fiːdɪŋ] [singular, noun]
foliage feeding [ˈfəʊlɪɪdʒ fiːdɪŋ] [singular, noun]

nawożenie dolistne

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forest care [ˈfɒrɪst kɛː] [singular, noun]
forest care [ˈfɒrɪst kɛː] [singular, noun]

pielęgnacja lasu

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forest ecosystem [ˈfɒrɪst ˈiːkəʊsɪstəm] [singular, noun]
forest ecosystem [ˈfɒrɪst ˈiːkəʊsɪstəm] [singular, noun]

ekosystem leśny

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forest inspectorate, forest inspectorates [ˈfɒrɪst ɪnˈspɛktərət] [singular, noun]
forest inspectorate, forest inspectorates [ˈfɒrɪst ɪnˈspɛktərət] [singular, noun]

nadleśnictwo

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forest renewal [ˈfɒrɪst rɪˈnjuːəl] [phrase]
forest renewal [ˈfɒrɪst rɪˈnjuːəl] [phrase]

odnowienie lasu

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498038180171_0
forest thinning [ˈfɒrɪst ˈθɪnɪŋ] [singular, noun]
forest thinning [ˈfɒrɪst ˈθɪnɪŋ] [singular, noun]

prześwietlenie lasu

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gear‑wheel transmission [ˈɡɪəwiːl trɑːnsˈmɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
gear‑wheel transmission [ˈɡɪəwiːl trɑːnsˈmɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

przekładnia zębata

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gene bank, gene banks [dʒiːn baŋk] [singular, noun]
gene bank, gene banks [dʒiːn baŋk] [singular, noun]

bank genów

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generative renewal [ˈdʒɛn(ə)rətɪv rɪˈnjuːəl] [phrase]
generative renewal [ˈdʒɛn(ə)rətɪv rɪˈnjuːəl] [phrase]

odnowienie generatywne

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grappling hook, grappling hooks [ˈɡraplɪŋ hʊk] [singular, noun]
grappling hook, grappling hooks [ˈɡraplɪŋ hʊk] [singular, noun]

kotwiczka

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grow [ɡrəʊ] [verb]
grow [ɡrəʊ] [verb]

wyrastać

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growth [ɡrəʊθ] [singular, noun]
growth [ɡrəʊθ] [singular, noun]

przyrost

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hanging [ˈhaŋɪŋ] [adjective]
hanging [ˈhaŋɪŋ] [adjective]

zwisający

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husking mill, husking mills [hʌskɪŋ mɪl] [singular, noun]
husking mill, husking mills [hʌskɪŋ mɪl] [singular, noun]

wyłuszczarnia

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intermediate cutting [ˌɪntəˈmiːdɪət ˈkʌtɪŋ] [phrase]
intermediate cutting [ˌɪntəˈmiːdɪət ˈkʌtɪŋ] [phrase]

cięcie pielęgnacyjne

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498039080933_0
jointed‑telescopic shaft, jointed‑telescopic shafts [ˈdʒɔɪntɪdtɛlɪˈskɒpɪk ʃɑːft] [singular, noun]
jointed‑telescopic shaft, jointed‑telescopic shafts [ˈdʒɔɪntɪdtɛlɪˈskɒpɪk ʃɑːft] [singular, noun]

wał przegubowo‑teleskopowy

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kidney tray, kidney trays [ˈkɪdni treɪ] [singular, noun]
kidney tray, kidney trays [ˈkɪdni treɪ] [singular, noun]

nosidełko

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knot, knots [nɒt] [singular, noun]
knot, knots [nɒt] [singular, noun]

pętla

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ladder, ladders [ˈladə] [singular, noun]
ladder, ladders [ˈladə] [singular, noun]

drabina

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498039541251_0
late cleaning [leɪt ˈkliːnɪŋ] [phrase]
late cleaning [leɪt ˈkliːnɪŋ] [phrase]

czyszczenie późne

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late thinning [leɪt ˈθɪnɪŋ] [singular, noun]
late thinning [leɪt ˈθɪnɪŋ] [singular, noun]

trzebież późna

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layer [ˈleɪə] [singular, noun]
layer [ˈleɪə] [singular, noun]

odkład

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life line, life lines [lʌɪf lʌɪn] [singular, noun]
life line, life lines [lʌɪf lʌɪn] [singular, noun]

linia asekuracyjna

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lift, lifts [lɪft] [singular, noun]
lift, lifts [lɪft] [singular, noun]

podnośnik

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litter [ˈlɪtə] [singular, noun]
litter [ˈlɪtə] [singular, noun]

ściółka

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Lophodermium needle cast [singular, noun]
Lophodermium needle cast [singular, noun]

osutka sosny

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mounting of the covers [ˈmaʊntɪŋ ɒv ðə 'kʌvərz] [phrase]
mounting of the covers [ˈmaʊntɪŋ ɒv ðə 'kʌvərz] [phrase]

mocowane osłon

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498039587604_0
natural renewal [ˈnatʃ(ə)r(ə)l rɪˈnjuːəl] [phrase]
natural renewal [ˈnatʃ(ə)r(ə)l rɪˈnjuːəl] [phrase]

odnowienie naturalne

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498039593364_0
natural seeding [ˈnatʃ(ə)r(ə)l siːdɪŋ] [singular, noun]
natural seeding [ˈnatʃ(ə)r(ə)l siːdɪŋ] [singular, noun]

samosiew

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498040509505_0
needle, needles [ˈniːd(ə)l] [singular, noun]
needle, needles [ˈniːd(ə)l] [singular, noun]

igły

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498040523491_0
nursery production [ˈnəːs(ə)ri prəˈdʌkʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
nursery production [ˈnəːs(ə)ri prəˈdʌkʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

produkcja szkółkarska

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498040530465_0
nursery, nurseries [ˈnəːs(ə)ri] [singular, noun]
nursery, nurseries [ˈnəːs(ə)ri] [singular, noun]

szkółka

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oil level [ɔɪl ˈlɛv(ə)l] [singular, noun]
oil level [ɔɪl ˈlɛv(ə)l] [singular, noun]

poziom oleju

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pathogen [ˈpaθədʒ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
pathogen [ˈpaθədʒ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

patogen

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498040577306_0
pedological and soil fertility expertise, pedological and soil fertility expertises [ˌpɛdəˈlɒdʒɪk(ə)l ənd sɔɪl fəˈtɪlɪti ˌɛkspəːˈtiːz] [phrase]
pedological and soil fertility expertise, pedological and soil fertility expertises [ˌpɛdəˈlɒdʒɪk(ə)l ənd sɔɪl fəˈtɪlɪti ˌɛkspəːˈtiːz] [phrase]

ekspertyza gleboznawczo‑nawożeniowa

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phyllotaxy [ˌfɪlə(ʊ)ˈtaksɪ] [singular, noun]
phyllotaxy [ˌfɪlə(ʊ)ˈtaksɪ] [singular, noun]

ulistnienie

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pine, pines [pʌɪn] [singular, noun]
pine, pines [pʌɪn] [singular, noun]

sosna

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plant [plɑːnt] [verb]
plant [plɑːnt] [verb]

sadzić

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planting [plɑːntɪŋ] [singular, noun]
planting [plɑːntɪŋ] [singular, noun]

sadzenie

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498040607582_0
planting bar, planting bars [plɑːntɪŋ bɑː] [singular, noun]
planting bar, planting bars [plɑːntɪŋ bɑː] [singular, noun]

kostur

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498041942339_0
plus tree, plus trees [plʌs triː] [singular, noun]
plus tree, plus trees [plʌs triː] [singular, noun]

drzewo doborowe

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498042010047_0
poisonous [ˈpɔɪzənəs] [adjective]
poisonous [ˈpɔɪzənəs] [adjective]

trujący

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498042080979_0
power take‑off shaft, power take‑off shafts [ˈpaʊə ˈteɪkɒf ʃɑːft] [singular, noun]
power take‑off shaft, power take‑off shafts [ˈpaʊə ˈteɪkɒf ʃɑːft] [singular, noun]

wał odbioru mocy

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498042156953_0
prickly [ˈprɪkli] [adjective]
prickly [ˈprɪkli] [adjective]

kłujący

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pruning shears ['pru:nɪŋ ʃi:rz] [plural, noun]
pruning shears ['pru:nɪŋ ʃi:rz] [plural, noun]

sekator

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498042304845_0
renewal [rɪˈnjuːəl] [singular, noun]
renewal [rɪˈnjuːəl] [singular, noun]

odnowienie

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498042504819_0
root collar, root collars [ruːt ˈkɒlə] [singular, noun]
root collar, root collars [ruːt ˈkɒlə] [singular, noun]

szyjka korzeniowa

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498042628782_0
root system, root systems [ruːt ˈsɪstəm] [singular, noun]
root system, root systems [ruːt ˈsɪstəm] [singular, noun]

system korzeniowy

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498042692006_0
salvage cutting [ˈsalvɪdʒ ˈkʌtɪŋ] [phrase]
salvage cutting [ˈsalvɪdʒ ˈkʌtɪŋ] [phrase]

cięcia przygodne

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498042768091_0
sapling stand, sapling stands [ˈsaplɪŋ stand] [singular, noun]
sapling stand, sapling stands [ˈsaplɪŋ stand] [singular, noun]

młodnik

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Scots pine, Scots pines [skɒts pʌɪn] [singular, noun]
Scots pine, Scots pines [skɒts pʌɪn] [singular, noun]

sosna pospolita

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498042924027_0
screwed fastener, screwed fasteners [skruːd ˈfɑːsnə] [singular, noun]
screwed fastener, screwed fasteners [skruːd ˈfɑːsnə] [singular, noun]

połączenia skręcane

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seed stand, seed stands [siːd stand] [singular, noun]
seed stand, seed stands [siːd stand] [singular, noun]

drzewostan nasienny

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498043123890_0
seedling, seedlings [ˈsiːdlɪŋ] [singular, noun]
seedling, seedlings [ˈsiːdlɪŋ] [singular, noun]

sadzonki, siewki

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498043220806_0
shaking grate, shaking grates ['ʃeɪkɪŋ ɡreɪt] [singular, noun]
shaking grate, shaking grates ['ʃeɪkɪŋ ɡreɪt] [singular, noun]

ruszt wytrząsający

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slender [ˈslɛndə] [adjective]
slender [ˈslɛndə] [adjective]

gonny

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slit, slits [slɪt] [singular, noun]
slit, slits [slɪt] [singular, noun]

szpara

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soil [sɔɪl] [singular, noun]
soil [sɔɪl] [singular, noun]

gleba, ziemia

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sorting ['sɔ:tɪŋ] [singular, noun]
sorting ['sɔ:tɪŋ] [singular, noun]

sortowanie

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498043680924_0
sowing ['səuɪŋ] [singular, noun]
sowing ['səuɪŋ] [singular, noun]

siew

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498043745605_0
sprinkling irrigation [ˈsprɪŋklɪŋ ɪrɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
sprinkling irrigation [ˈsprɪŋklɪŋ ɪrɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

deszczowanie

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498043835111_0
sprout, sprouts [sprəʊt] [singular, noun]
sprout, sprouts [sprəʊt] [singular, noun]

odrośl

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498043966189_0
starter fertilisation [ˈstɑːtə ˌfəːtɪlʌɪˈzeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
starter fertilisation [ˈstɑːtə ˌfəːtɪlʌɪˈzeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

nawożenie startowe

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498044035250_0
stem cutting [stɛm ˈkʌtɪŋ] [singular, noun]
stem cutting [stɛm ˈkʌtɪŋ] [singular, noun]

zrzez

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498044089219_0
supporting wheel, supporting wheels [səˈpɔːtɪŋ wiːl] [singular, noun]
supporting wheel, supporting wheels [səˈpɔːtɪŋ wiːl] [singular, noun]

koło podpierające

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498044156384_0
surface [ˈsəːfɪs] [singular, noun]
surface [ˈsəːfɪs] [singular, noun]

powierzchnia

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498044228387_0
tool, tools [tuːl] [singular, noun]
tool, tools [tuːl] [singular, noun]

narzędzia

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498044321714_0
tractor, tractors [ˈtraktə] [singular, noun]
tractor, tractors [ˈtraktə] [singular, noun]

ciągnik

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498044444545_0
tree, trees [triː] [singular, noun]
tree, trees [triː] [singular, noun]

korona drzewa

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498044520519_0
treetop, treetops [ˈtriːtɒp] [singular, noun]
treetop, treetops [ˈtriːtɒp] [singular, noun]

korona drzew

m9dd1d165033a5946_1498044615603_0
vegetative renewal [ˈvɛdʒɪteɪtɪv rɪˈnjuːəl] [phrase]
vegetative renewal [ˈvɛdʒɪteɪtɪv rɪˈnjuːəl] [phrase]

odnowienie wegetatywne

weeding [wiːdɪŋ] [singular, noun]
weeding [wiːdɪŋ] [singular, noun]

pielenie

yielding [ˈjiːldɪŋ] [singular, noun]
yielding [ˈjiːldɪŋ] [singular, noun]

obradzanie