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E-resource FORESTRY

Źródło: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.

Skidding with a forwarder

1. Film in the standard version.

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The forester explains to an intern what skidding with a forwarder looks like. The intern finds out about the capacity of the machine and the effectiveness of skidding with a forwarder. They also mention the advantages of forwarding. Leśniczy tłumaczy praktykantce, jak wygląda zrywka drewna stosowego przy użyciu forwardera. Leśniczy wyjaśnia zasady bezpieczeństwa, które należy zachować podczas pracy tej maszyny. Praktykantka pyta o wydajność maszyny, zasady układania zerwanego drewna, sposób wywózki itp.

2. Film with subtitles.

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The forester explains to an intern what skidding with a forwarder looks like. The intern finds out about the capacity of the machine and the effectiveness of skidding with a forwarder. They also mention the advantages of forwarding. Leśniczy tłumaczy praktykantce, jak wygląda zrywka drewna stosowego przy użyciu forwardera. Leśniczy wyjaśnia zasady bezpieczeństwa, które należy zachować podczas pracy tej maszyny. Praktykantka pyta o wydajność maszyny, zasady układania zerwanego drewna, sposób wywózki itp.
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3. Film with subtitles and pauses. Listen and repeat after the speaker.

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The forester explains to an intern what skidding with a forwarder looks like. The intern finds out about the capacity of the machine and the effectiveness of skidding with a forwarder. They also mention the advantages of forwarding. Leśniczy tłumaczy praktykantce, jak wygląda zrywka drewna stosowego przy użyciu forwardera. Leśniczy wyjaśnia zasady bezpieczeństwa, które należy zachować podczas pracy tej maszyny. Praktykantka pyta o wydajność maszyny, zasady układania zerwanego drewna, sposób wywózki itp.
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4. Film with subtitles and narration.

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The forester explains to an intern what skidding with a forwarder looks like. The intern finds out about the capacity of the machine and the effectiveness of skidding with a forwarder. They also mention the advantages of forwarding. Leśniczy tłumaczy praktykantce, jak wygląda zrywka drewna stosowego przy użyciu forwardera. Leśniczy wyjaśnia zasady bezpieczeństwa, które należy zachować podczas pracy tej maszyny. Praktykantka pyta o wydajność maszyny, zasady układania zerwanego drewna, sposób wywózki itp.
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classicmobile
Exercise 1
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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classicmobile
Exercise 2
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Skidding trail systems

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The animation presents the basic systems of skidding trails. Animacja przedstawia podstawowe systemy szlaków zrywkowych.
classicmobile
Exercise 3
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Types of wood depots

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The animation presents the different types of wood depots together with their short descriptions. Materiał prezentuje różne rodzaje składnic drewna, wraz z krótkim ich opisem.
classicmobile
Exercise 4
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Types of skidding

The hypertext material is a part of a training course dedicated to recognizing types of skidding. It provides information on the types of equipment and techniques used in skidding.

Hipertekst jest fragmentem szkolenia w zakresie rozpoznania rodzajów zrywki. Informuje o rodzajach sprzętu i technikach używanych do wykonania zrywki.

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Ladies and gentleman, I will tell you about wood skidding today.

It’s a form of round wood transport from the harvestingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279637332_0harvesting ** place (from the stump) to the place of loadingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279733582_0loading, storingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279718401_0storing, initial processingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279743621_0processing, etc. In simple words, it’s “extracting”, pulling out the wood from the depths of the forest to the exit route. From that route, the wood is transported to the recipient.

On the basis of transportation methods, skiddingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279738479_0skiddingis divided into:

1. ground skiddingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279748379_0ground skidding, where almost the entire length of the skidded tree touches the ground (litterm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279753543_0litter);

2. skiddingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279762480_0skidding, where usually thebutt logm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279767416_0butt log is raised up, and the top is dragged on the ground. Skidding can be done using special tractors that use a system of rope winches or with hydraulic grapplesm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279777622_0hydraulic grapples. For example, a LKT 81 tractor pulls the wood towards itself. Then, it leans the wood against a lowered plate using the choker cable winching method. A Klembank tractor, on the other hand, grapples the tree using hydraulic grapples and lifts it in a way that only the thinner ends touch the ground;

3. suspended skiddingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279782995_0suspended skidding, where the tree has no contact with the***soil.***m7456a0d0b7581645_1497279787842_0***soil.*** In this skidding system, ropeways are used. It’s a system of poles and ropes above the ground. The skidded pieces are placed into a cart and a hoisting winchm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279772536_0hoisting winch transports the wood to the storing place. Those systems are ideal for mountain areas that are hard to reach. This is how their efficiency is proved. As a curiosity, we should mention helicopter skidding which is done in the USA or in Canada;

4. forwardingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279793098_0forwarding, where the wood is loaded onto a forwarder. The wood has no contact with the ground. This limits the damage to soilm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279787842_0m7456a0d0b7581645_1497279787842_0surface only to damages caused by tractor wheels (beating down the ground).

classicmobile
Exercise 5
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Rules of establishing skidding trails for multifunctional machines

A forester explains the procedures of establishing skidding trails. The forester determines the width of the trail for a specific machine. Its route and the distance between them in the tree stands is also determined. The forester indicates the places to store the extracted assortments.

Leśniczy wyjaśnia procedury zakładania szlaków zrywkowych. Określa szerokość szlaku dla określonej maszyny. Ustala jego przebieg i odległości między nimi w drzewostanie. Wskazuje miejsca złożenia zerwanych sortymentów.

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Skidding trailsm7456a0d0b7581645_1497292341857_0Skidding trails for multifunctional machines are established in tree stands in two ways. On flat surfaces without natural renewals, the networkm7456a0d0b7581645_1497292338305_0network of trails is regular and connected to roads at an angle of 30‑45 degrees. This facilitates the departure from the site. The width of the trails is adjusted to the dimensions of the multifunctional machines. The distances between the trails equal the reach of the hydraulic armm7456a0d0b7581645_1497292330786_0reach of the hydraulic arm, for example, a 12 m reachm7456a0d0b7581645_1497292326285_0reach of the machine means a 24 meter distance between trails.

The main rule is to have such a number of trails that after they are mapped and cut out, they don’t weaken the treetopm7456a0d0b7581645_1497292312053_0treetop cover and lower the resistance to wind.

Sloping terrains with a natural renewalm7456a0d0b7581645_1497292307534_0renewal require the use of irregular trails. They must be adapted to the prevailing field conditions and they must guarantee the protectionm7456a0d0b7581645_1497292302003_0protection of the young generation. Often in such cases, it’s necessary to use the method of combined fellingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497292294450_0combined felling. This means that, where the trails allow for it, the felling is done with a machine. When the trails are outside the reach of the machine, chainsaws are used.

In each forest inspectorate, it’s the chief forester who issues the directivem7456a0d0b7581645_1497292283746_0directive concerned with skidding. This is done in accordance with the directive of the general director of the National Forests. The directive lists the rules of mapping areas for multifunctional machine work and the rules of granting access to such areas.

Skidding trails, depotsm7456a0d0b7581645_1497292278430_0depotsand networks of exit routes create a transportation network. It grants access to tree stands to be harvested for wood all year long. This results from the fact that the machines can work, for example, when the snow cover is thick.

Skidding trails and the mechanization of skidding, especially using forwarders, increases work safetym7456a0d0b7581645_1497292265719_0work safety and capacitym7456a0d0b7581645_1497292272551_0capacity.

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classicmobile
Exercise 6
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Types of machines and devices used for skidding

The hypertext material is a dialogue between a forester and an intern. The forester discusses various types of machines and devices that can be used in different field conditions. The forester also talks about the specificity of skidding depending on the conditions, for example, horse skidding in the mountains.

Hipertekst jest dialogiem między leśniczym a praktykantką. Leśniczy przedstawia rodzaje maszyn i urządzeń, które można wykorzystać w różnych warunkach terenowych. Jednocześnie przybliża specyfikę zrywki w zależności od warunków, np. zrywka konna w górach.

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Forester: Today, I will tell you about a few types of skidding machines and devices. We use them for skiddingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497302764422_0skidding in my forestry.

Intern: How do those machines work?

Forester: You will see in a minute because we are going to the felling sitem7456a0d0b7581645_1497302754287_0felling site where large‑sized pinewood is being skidded. We use tractors with a skidding‑bunching device for that.

Intern: Is that an effective method of skidding on a clear felling site?

Forester: Yes. After approaching the unit of wood, the operator lowers the bearing platem7456a0d0b7581645_1497302748645_0bearing plate and embraces the unit with pliers. After the unit is lifted, the crimping pliersm7456a0d0b7581645_1497302736917_0crimping pliers clamp on the unit and skidding to the place of bunchingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497302733680_0bunching begins.

Intern: Will we see the beech tree stand now?

Forester: Yes, here the sawmill wood is skidded using an LKT 81 skidder. It’s a specialized tractor for work in difficultm7456a0d0b7581645_1497302728712_0difficultterrain.

Intern: This machine must work really well in clay soil with bumpsm7456a0d0b7581645_1497302618223_0bumps.

Forester: That’s right. The mounted hoisting winchesm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279772536_0hoisting winches allow to drag a few pieces of wood to the bearing plate. After the plate is lifted, thesuspendedm7456a0d0b7581645_1497302609415_0suspended wood is skidded into a bunchm7456a0d0b7581645_1497302603612_0bunch. After the pieces are detached, the tractor bunches the wood using a hydraulic buncher.

Intern: Will I be able to see a forwarder in your forestry?

Forester: Yes. In a moment, we will go to the site where a forwarder is forwarding birch pulpwood. The operator, using a hydraulic gripping devicem7456a0d0b7581645_1497302598187_0gripping device, is loading the pulpwood between the stakesm7456a0d0b7581645_1497302589553_0stakes of the loading area. It’s a typical example of forwardingm7456a0d0b7581645_1497279793098_0forwarding.

Intern: And do horses still work in the forest?

Forester: I have one such division where an experienced skidderm7456a0d0b7581645_1497302952671_0skidder and two of his horses are carrying out the skidding. Horse skidding is used in mountain areas. Here, it’s a rare view. Horses are indispensable in places where the terrain is too difficult for machines. Maybe it’s not an efficient method, but theinterferencem7456a0d0b7581645_1497302963254_0interference with the environment is minimal. And it still is the most ecological method .

classicmobile
Exercise 7
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Gallery

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Type a word

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Play the game. Zagraj w grę.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Dictionary

assortment, assortments [əˈsôrtmənt] [singular, noun]
assortment, assortments [əˈsôrtmənt] [singular, noun]

asortyment

m7456a0d0b7581645_1497305024756_0
bark [bärk] [singular, noun]
bark [bärk] [singular, noun]

kora

m7456a0d0b7581645_1497305028963_0
bearing plate, bearing plates [ˈbɛrɪŋ plāt] [phrase]
bearing plate, bearing plates [ˈbɛrɪŋ plāt] [phrase]

płyta oporowa

m7456a0d0b7581645_1497335091175_0
beaten [ˈbitn] [adjective]
beaten [ˈbitn] [adjective]

ubity

m7456a0d0b7581645_1497335096649_0
beech, beeches [bitʃ] [singular, noun]
beech, beeches [bitʃ] [singular, noun]

buk

m7456a0d0b7581645_1497335101839_0
broken branches [ˈbroʊkən bræn(t)ʃ] [phrase]
broken branches [ˈbroʊkən bræn(t)ʃ] [phrase]

obłamanie gałęzi, złamane

m7456a0d0b7581645_1497336395332_0
bumps [bəmps] [plural, noun]
bumps [bəmps] [plural, noun]

nierówności

m7456a0d0b7581645_1497336402048_0
bunch, bunches [bən(t)ʃ] [singular, noun]
bunch, bunches [bən(t)ʃ] [singular, noun]

mygła

m7456a0d0b7581645_1497336417468_0
bunching [bən(t)ʃɪŋ] [singular, noun]
bunching [bən(t)ʃɪŋ] [singular, noun]

mygłowanie

m7456a0d0b7581645_1497336426296_0
butt log, butt logs [bət lɒɡ] [singular, noun]
butt log, butt logs [bət lɒɡ] [singular, noun]

odziomek

m7456a0d0b7581645_1497336435646_0
capacity [kəˈpæsədi] [singular, noun]
capacity [kəˈpæsədi] [singular, noun]

wydajność

m7456a0d0b7581645_1497951440522_0
carrying capacity ['kærɪɪŋ kəˈpæsədi] [singular, noun]
carrying capacity ['kærɪɪŋ kəˈpæsədi] [singular, noun]

ładowność

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498034118450_0
collection [kəˈlɛkʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
collection [kəˈlɛkʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

odbiór

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498034373932_0
combined felling [kəm'baɪnd 'fɛlɪŋ] [phrase]
combined felling [kəm'baɪnd 'fɛlɪŋ] [phrase]

ścinka kombinowana

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498035315140_0
concentration [ˌkɑnsənˈtreɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
concentration [ˌkɑnsənˈtreɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

koncentracja

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498035530169_0
crimping pliers [krɪmpɪŋ ˈplaɪərz] [phrase]
crimping pliers [krɪmpɪŋ ˈplaɪərz] [phrase]

kleszcze zaciskające

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498035725028_0
cross fall [krôs fɔl] [phrase]
cross fall [krôs fɔl] [phrase]

spadek poprzeczny

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498035827118_0
cut down/fell [kət doun/; /fɛl] [verb]
cut down/fell [kət doun/; /fɛl] [verb]

ścinać

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498035902878_0
deep wheel‑ruts [dēp (h)wēl rəts] [phrase]
deep wheel‑ruts [dēp (h)wēl rəts] [phrase]

głębokie koleiny

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498036288086_0
depot, depots ['di:pə] [singular, noun]
depot, depots ['di:pə] [singular, noun]

składnica

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498037317754_0
difficult [ˈdɪfəkəlt] [adjective]
difficult [ˈdɪfəkəlt] [adjective]

trudny

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498037463889_0
directive, directives [dəˈrɛktɪv] [singular, noun]
directive, directives [dəˈrɛktɪv] [singular, noun]

zarządzenie

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498037585993_0
disturbance of the root system [dəˈstərbəns əv ðə ro͞ot sistəm] [phrase]
disturbance of the root system [dəˈstərbəns əv ðə ro͞ot sistəm] [phrase]

naruszenie systemu korzeniowego

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498038179960_0
driver's cabin, driver's cabins [ˈdraɪvərs ˈkabən] [phrase]
driver's cabin, driver's cabins [ˈdraɪvərs ˈkabən] [phrase]

kabina

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498038180171_0
elongated slope [iˈlɔŋˌɡeɪdəd sloʊp] [phrase]
elongated slope [iˈlɔŋˌɡeɪdəd sloʊp] [phrase]

spadek podłużny

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498038357148_0
felling site ['fɛlɪŋ saɪt] [phrase]
felling site ['fɛlɪŋ saɪt] [phrase]

zrąb

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498038512559_0
forest litter ['fɔrɪst ˈlɪdər] [phrase]
forest litter ['fɔrɪst ˈlɪdər] [phrase]

ściółka leśna

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498038693826_0
forwarder, forwarders [ˈfɔrwərdər] [singular, noun]
forwarder, forwarders [ˈfɔrwərdər] [singular, noun]

forwarder

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498038800708_0
forwarding [ˈfɔrwərdɪŋ] [adjective]
forwarding [ˈfɔrwərdɪŋ] [adjective]

nasiębierny

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498038885595_0
forwarding [ˈfɔrwərdɪŋ] [singular, noun]
forwarding [ˈfɔrwərdɪŋ] [singular, noun]

zrywka nasiębierna

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498038979273_0
gripping device, gripping devices [ˈɡrɪpɪŋ dəˈvaɪs] [phrase]
gripping device, gripping devices [ˈɡrɪpɪŋ dəˈvaɪs] [phrase]

chwytak

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039057621_0
ground skidding [ɡraʊnd 'skɪdɪŋ] [phrase]
ground skidding [ɡraʊnd 'skɪdɪŋ] [phrase]

zrywka wleczona

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039065229_0
harvesting [ˈhärvəstɪŋ] [singular, noun]
harvesting [ˈhärvəstɪŋ] [singular, noun]

pozyskanie

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039072609_0
hinged carriage, hinged carriages [hinjd ˈkɛrɪdʒ] [phrase]
hinged carriage, hinged carriages [hinjd ˈkɛrɪdʒ] [phrase]

przegubowa rama

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039080933_0
hoisting winch, hoisting winches ['hɔɪstɪŋ wɪn(t)ʃ] [phrase]
hoisting winch, hoisting winches ['hɔɪstɪŋ wɪn(t)ʃ] [phrase]

wciągarka

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039521057_0
hydraulic grapples [haɪˈdrɔlɪk ˈɡræpəlz] [phrase]
hydraulic grapples [haɪˈdrɔlɪk ˈɡræpəlz] [phrase]

kleszcze hydrauliczne

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039528624_0
interfere [ˌɪn(t)ərˈfɪr] [verb]
interfere [ˌɪn(t)ərˈfɪr] [verb]

ingerować

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039534495_0
landscape [ˈlan(d)ˌskāp] [singular, noun]
landscape [ˈlan(d)ˌskāp] [singular, noun]

krajobraz

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039541251_0
leaking oil spills [ˈlikɪŋ ɔɪl spils] [phrase]
leaking oil spills [ˈlikɪŋ ɔɪl spils] [phrase]

plamy wyciekającego oleju

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039546364_0
litter [ˈlɪdər] [singular, noun]
litter [ˈlɪdər] [singular, noun]

ściółka

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039552067_0
loading [ˈloʊdɪŋ] [singular, noun]
loading [ˈloʊdɪŋ] [singular, noun]

załadunek

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039557316_0
long log, long logs [lɒŋ lɒɡ] [phrase]
long log, long logs [lɒŋ lɒɡ] [phrase]

dłużyca

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039563317_0
manipulate [mə'nɪpjuleɪt] [verb]
manipulate [mə'nɪpjuleɪt] [verb]

manipulować

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039568306_0
manipulation [mənɪpju'leɪʃən] [singular, noun]
manipulation [mənɪpju'leɪʃən] [singular, noun]

manipulacja

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039574437_0
mass [mæs] [singular, noun]
mass [mæs] [singular, noun]

masa

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039581371_0
near the felling site [ˈnɪr ðə 'fɛlɪŋ saɪt] [phrase]
near the felling site [ˈnɪr ðə 'fɛlɪŋ saɪt] [phrase]

przyzrębowy

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039587604_0
network, networks [ˈnetˌwərk] [singular, noun]
network, networks [ˈnetˌwərk] [singular, noun]

siatka

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498039593364_0
operator, operators [ˈäpəˌrādər] [singular, noun]
operator, operators [ˈäpəˌrādər] [singular, noun]

operator

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498040509505_0
peeling ['pi:lɪŋ] [singular, noun]
peeling ['pi:lɪŋ] [singular, noun]

zdzieranie

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498040523491_0
plant [plant] [verb]
plant [plant] [verb]

obsadzić

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498040530465_0
processing [ˈprōˌsesɪŋ] [singular, noun]
processing [ˈprōˌsesɪŋ] [singular, noun]

obróbka

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498040550545_0
protection [prəˈtɛkʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
protection [prəˈtɛkʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

ochrona

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498040556839_0
pulpwood [ˈpəlpwʊd] [singular, noun]
pulpwood [ˈpəlpwʊd] [singular, noun]

papierówka

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498040577306_0
reach [ritʃ] [singular, noun]
reach [ritʃ] [singular, noun]

zasięg

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498040584585_0
reach of the arm [ritʃ əv ðə ärm] [phrase]
reach of the arm [ritʃ əv ðə ärm] [phrase]

wysięg ramienia

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498040592268_0
renewal [rəˈn(y)o͞oəl] [singular, noun]
renewal [rəˈn(y)o͞oəl] [singular, noun]

odnowienie

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498040597481_0
ripped off bark [ript ɔf bärk] [phrase]
ripped off bark [ript ɔf bärk] [phrase]

odarcie kory

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498040602617_0
sawyer, sawyers [ˈsɔjər] [singular, noun]
sawyer, sawyers [ˈsɔjər] [singular, noun]

pilarz

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498040607582_0
shipping [ˈʃɪpɪŋ] [singular, noun]
shipping [ˈʃɪpɪŋ] [singular, noun]

spedycja

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498041942339_0
skidder, skidders [skɪdər] [singular, noun]
skidder, skidders [skɪdər] [singular, noun]

maszyna zrywkowa, zrywkacz

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498042010047_0
skidding ['skɪdɪŋ] [singular, noun]
skidding ['skɪdɪŋ] [singular, noun]

zrywka, zrywka półpowieszona

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498042080979_0
skidding trail, skidding trails ['skɪdɪŋ treɪl] [phrase]
skidding trail, skidding trails ['skɪdɪŋ treɪl] [phrase]

szlak zrywkowy

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498042156953_0
soil [sɔɪl] [singular, noun]
soil [sɔɪl] [singular, noun]

gleba

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498042241224_0
stack, stacks [stak] [singular, noun]
stack, stacks [stak] [singular, noun]

stos

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498042304845_0
stake, stakes [steɪk] [singular, noun]
stake, stakes [steɪk] [singular, noun]

kłonica

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498042504819_0
stock survey [stäk ˈsərˌveɪ] [phrase]
stock survey [stäk ˈsərˌveɪ] [phrase]

szacunki brakarskie

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498042628782_0
storing ['stɔ:ɪŋ] [singular, noun]
storing ['stɔ:ɪŋ] [singular, noun]

magazynowanie, składowanie

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498042692006_0
suspended [səˈspendəd] [adjective]
suspended [səˈspendəd] [adjective]

półpodwieszony

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498042768091_0
suspended skidding [səˈspendəd 'skɪdɪŋ] [phrase]
suspended skidding [səˈspendəd 'skɪdɪŋ] [phrase]

zrywka podwieszona

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498042845970_0
tilting tree [tɪltɪŋ trē] [phrase]
tilting tree [tɪltɪŋ trē] [phrase]

pochylone drzewo

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498042924027_0
tractor, tractors [ˈtraktər] [singular, noun]
tractor, tractors [ˈtraktər] [singular, noun]

ciągnik

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498043061155_0
transport [ˈtræn(t)spɔrt] [singular, noun]
transport [ˈtræn(t)spɔrt] [singular, noun]

transport

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498043123890_0
treetop damage [ˈtriˌtɑp dæmɪdʒ] [phrase]
treetop damage [ˈtriˌtɑp dæmɪdʒ] [phrase]

uszkodzenia korony

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498043220806_0
treetop, treetops [ˈtriˌtɑp] [singular, noun]
treetop, treetops [ˈtriˌtɑp] [singular, noun]

korona

m7456a0d0b7581645_1498043300645_0
work safety [wərk ˈseɪfti] [phrase]
work safety [wərk ˈseɪfti] [phrase]

bezpieczeństwo pracy