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Post‑mortem examination of a pig

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Exercise 1
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Exercise 2
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Anatomy of the farm animal's heart

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Anatomy of a cow. Skeletal system.

Professor: Can you tell me what is the function of a skeleton for animal?

Student: The science which studies the structure of the skeleton is osteology. Animals can move thanks to specialised body organs. The parts of this system include muscles and bones which form the skeletonm53393380fed10821_1510317499568_0skeleton. It is a system of leverages to which the muscles are attached.

Prof: And what is the structure of a skeleton?

S: Animal skeleton consists of two parts – an axial and appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton includes the bones of the trunk, tail and skull. The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the thoracic limbm53393380fed10821_1510317523820_0thoracic limb, that is the forelimb – and the bones of the pelvic limb, that is the hindlimb.
The trunk bones include the vertebral columnm53393380fed10821_1510317548226_0vertebral column, ribsm53393380fed10821_1510317572635_0ribs and sternumm53393380fed10821_1510317584477_0sternum.

The vertebral column consists of the following parts: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal. The segments of the vertebral column consist of the vertebraem53393380fed10821_1510317600207_0vertebrae.
The bones of the head form the skullm53393380fed10821_1510317618553_0skull which is composed of the cranium and viscerocranium.
In animals the forelimbs are connected to the trunk through the shoulder girdle which is composed of the bones among which is the scapulam53393380fed10821_1510317630504_0scapula and it forms together with the humerusm53393380fed10821_1510317647890_0humerus the shoulder jointm53393380fed10821_1510317671021_0shoulder joint.

The forelimb consists of the humerus, the bones of the forearm, that is the radius and ulna, which in cattle and pigs are fused.

The forelimb ends with the hand, that is the front footm53393380fed10821_1510317696153_0foot – it is composed of the carpusm53393380fed10821_1510317708887_0carpus, metacarpusm53393380fed10821_1510317767706_0metacarpus and phalanges which are connected with each other by a joint. In cows there are only two phalanges – III and IV which form the cloven hoof, and horse has only III phalange – a hoof.

The pelvic limbs, also called the hindlimbs are connected to the trunk by the pelvic girdle which consists of the iliumm53393380fed10821_1510317790623_0ilium, ischium and pubis.

The pelvic limb consists of the femur, the shank bones – the tibia and fibula, and the foot which consists of the tarsalsm53393380fed10821_1510317811051_0tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges.

P: Thank you very much. You’ve prepared very well for the exam. You get five from me.

S: Thank you very much.

Exercise 4
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Anatomy and physiology of digestive system in cattle

Technician: How do you think, what is the main feature differentiating the cow from the pig in terms of anatomy and breeding conditions?

Trainee: Pigs are omnivoresm53393380fed10821_1510321732297_0omnivores and live in the piggery, while cows are herbivoresm53393380fed10821_1510321753574_0herbivores and grazing on the pastures or stay in the barn.

T: That’s true. But this difference results from the anatomy of their digestive system. The pigs and horses are monogastricm53393380fed10821_1510321802267_0monogastric, while the goats and sheep are the so‑called ruminantsm53393380fed10821_1510321824427_0ruminants. They have a complex stomach, with several chambers, whose three first parts are called forestomachesm53393380fed10821_1510321841326_0forestomaches.

Trainee: Does this mean that their digestion processm53393380fed10821_1510321871119_0digestion process is different?

T: Yes, and it is important in handling each of the species. In monogastric animals, such as horses and pigs, the food is broken down into pieces and mixed with saliva in the oral cavitym53393380fed10821_1510321894042_0oral cavity, then it passes through the oesophagusm53393380fed10821_1510561210659_0oesophagus to the stomach. When the food reaches the small intestinem53393380fed10821_1510561232204_0small intestine, it is further digested with the help of the gastric juice.

Trainee: And what about the ruminants?

T: Ruminants have a complex stomachm53393380fed10821_1510561301855_0complex stomach and this process is different. The food, which is only partly broken down into pieces, passes from the oral cavity into the rumen and reticulum. The ruminants chewm53393380fed10821_1510561328385_0chew the food very briefly. To facilitate the digestion, the food is re‑chewedm53393380fed10821_1510561421308_0re‑chewed after 15‑45 minutes after ingestion. The food comes back in small pieces from the rumen and from the reticulum again to the oral cavity where they are carefully chewed, insalivated and re‑swallowed. Do you know, gentlemen, why is it for?

Trainee: I have no idea.

Trainee 2: In the rumen various components of feedm53393380fed10821_1510561445251_0feed are digested, among others the fibre (cellulosem53393380fed10821_1510561608924_0cellulose) which is the main element of the walls of plant cells. Thanks to this, the elements of plant cells can be utilised by the body. Non‑ruminants don’t digest fibre almost not at all.

T: Very good. Then the food goes from the rumenm53393380fed10821_1510561797911_0rumen through the reticulumm53393380fed10821_1510561812005_0reticulum and through the omasumm53393380fed10821_1510561835392_0omasum to the abomasumm53393380fed10821_1510561870251_0abomasum where it is digested in the same process as in the monogastric animals. Further digestion in the small and large intestine is the same in both species of animals.

Exercise 5
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Topographic anatomy

Doctor: Dear ladies and gentlemen! Today I would like to explain you the concept of topographic anatomym53393380fed10821_1510568994593_0topographic anatomy. Its purpose is to teach you the spatial perception of animal body, the layers of the body and how to describe the location of organs. What do you think, how we can divide the animal body?

Audience: Front and back.

D: Very good. It is the first plane which is called the transverse planem53393380fed10821_1510569157181_0transverse plane. It divides the body into cranialm53393380fed10821_1510569286502_0cranial and caudalm53393380fed10821_1510569350660_0caudal part. In what other way can we divide the animal body?

A: The right and left part.

D: Great. It is the median planem53393380fed10821_1510570105051_0median plane which goes along the long axis of the body and divides it into two symmetrical halves – right and left one. How else?

A: Upper and lower part.

D: Super. These planes are called dorsal and ventral planes. They allow for specifying whether the organ is closer or further away from the spine.

A: And what are the parts of animal body?

D: Animal body consists of the following main parts: the headm53393380fed10821_1510570128619_0the head, neckm53393380fed10821_1510570351952_0neck, trunkm53393380fed10821_1510570151996_0trunk, thoracicm53393380fed10821_1510570314824_0thoracic and pelvic limbsm53393380fed10821_1510570344299_0pelvic limbs (forelimbs and hindlimbs), and tail.

There are several regions in those parts – cervical, axillarym53393380fed10821_1510570392994_0axillary and inguinal which allow for specifying the location of organs and smaller structures.

Trainee: Do those parts, that you’ve mentioned, have the same name in all animals?

D: Yes. If you know those names, you can use them while referring to all species of farm animals.

That would be all for today. Thank you very much and see you at my next lecture.

Exercise 6
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Anatomy of body systems of ruminants

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Dictionary

mm83jbh16f51376978c1_1498134m83jbh_800
autopsy ˈɔːtɒpsi
autopsy ˈɔːtɒpsi

sekcja zwłok

ma5dbja16f51376978c1_1498134a5dbja_992
abdominal cavity æbˈdɒm.ɪ.nəl ˈkæv.ə.ti
abdominal cavity æbˈdɒm.ɪ.nəl ˈkæv.ə.ti

jama brzuszna

mcnghaf16f51376978c1_1498134cnghaf_431
abomasum ˌabəʊˈmeɪsəm
abomasum ˌabəʊˈmeɪsəm

trawieniec

majgf5n16f51376978c1_1498134ajgf5n_425
aorta eɪˈɔː.tə
aorta eɪˈɔː.tə

aorta

mnamhcd16f51376978c1_1498134namhcd_815
apex ˈeɪ.peks
apex ˈeɪ.peks

wierzchołek

m9b8b3m16f51376978c1_14981349b8b3m_345
asphyxiation əsˈfɪk.si.eɪt
asphyxiation əsˈfɪk.si.eɪt

uduszenie

mh6h7jb16f51376978c1_1498134h6h7jb_499
atrium ˈeɪ.tri.əm
atrium ˈeɪ.tri.əm

przedsionek

mhbhcd816f51376978c1_1498134hbhcd8_955
autopsy protocol ˈɔːtɒpsi ˈprəʊtəkɒl
autopsy protocol ˈɔːtɒpsi ˈprəʊtəkɒl

protokół sekcji

m5449aa16f51376978c1_14981345449aa_452
axilla ækˈsɪl.ə
axilla ækˈsɪl.ə

pachy

mechbdg16f51376978c1_1498134echbdg_681
back bæk
back bæk

grzbiet

m59dam416f51376978c1_149813459dam4_779
base beɪs
base beɪs

podstawa

mbb522616f51376978c1_1498134bb5226_728
blood blʌd
blood blʌd

krew

mhack6a16f51376978c1_1498134hack6a_723
blood vessels blʌd ˈves.əl
blood vessels blʌd ˈves.əl

naczynia krwionośne

megemag16f51376978c1_1498134egemag_441
cardiac muscle ˈkɑː.di.æk ˈmʌs.əl
cardiac muscle ˈkɑː.di.æk ˈmʌs.əl

mięsień sercowy

mdceckb16f51376978c1_1498134dceckb_441
carpus ˈkɑː.pəs
carpus ˈkɑː.pəs

nadgarstek

mc3i58j16f51376978c1_1498134c3i58j_468
cartilage ˈkɑː.təl.ɪdʒ
cartilage ˈkɑː.təl.ɪdʒ

chrząstka

mij4ba716f51376978c1_1498134ij4ba7_122
caudal ˈkɔː.dəl
caudal ˈkɔː.dəl

doogonowe

ma6m4fm16f51376978c1_1498134a6m4fm_252
cause of death kɔːz əv deθ
cause of death kɔːz əv deθ

przyczyna śmierci

mh3cgka16f51376978c1_1498134h3cgka_750
cellulose ˈsel.jə.ləʊs
cellulose ˈsel.jə.ləʊs

celuloza

m3cnah616f51376978c1_14981343cnah6_295
chew tʃuː
chew tʃuː

żuć

mnhd7hk16f51376978c1_1498134nhd7hk_644
circulatory system ˌsɜː.kjəˈleɪ.tər.i ˈsɪs.təm
circulatory system ˌsɜː.kjəˈleɪ.tər.i ˈsɪs.təm

układ krwionośny

mh8bd6c16f51376978c1_1498134h8bd6c_222
circumstances ˈsɜː.kəm.stɑːns
circumstances ˈsɜː.kəm.stɑːns

okoliczności

mjmaaek16f51376978c1_1498134jmaaek_498
complex stomach ˈkɒm.pleks ˈstʌm.ək
complex stomach ˈkɒm.pleks ˈstʌm.ək

żołądek wielokomorowy

mcbjhbd16f51376978c1_1498134cbjhbd_666
cranial ˈkreɪ.ni.əl
cranial ˈkreɪ.ni.əl

doczaszkowe

mc3i8ae16f51376978c1_1498134c3i8ae_182
rump rʌmp
rump rʌmp

zad

mkfgc8316f51376978c1_1498134kfgc83_322
death deθ
death deθ

zgon

m394fif16f51376978c1_1498134394fif_431
description of the animal dɪˈskrɪp.ʃən əv ðə ˈæn.ɪ.məl
description of the animal dɪˈskrɪp.ʃən əv ðə ˈæn.ɪ.məl

opis zwierzęcia

mbek8fc16f51376978c1_1498134bek8fc_897
digestion process daɪˈdʒes.tʃən ˈprəʊ.ses
digestion process daɪˈdʒes.tʃən ˈprəʊ.ses

proces trawienia

mkmm2ig16f51376978c1_1498134kmm2ig_553
digestive system daɪˈdʒes.tɪv ˈsɪs.təm
digestive system daɪˈdʒes.tɪv ˈsɪs.təm

układ pokarmowy

m2ka8ci16f51376978c1_14981342ka8ci_522
dock dɒk
dock dɒk

nasada ogona

mgf7gbf16f51376978c1_1498134gf7gbf_851
duodenum ˌdʒuː.əˈdiː.nəm
duodenum ˌdʒuː.əˈdiː.nəm

dwunastnica

mb7njne16f51376978c1_1498134b7njne_138
endocardium ˌɛndəʊˈkɑːdɪəm
endocardium ˌɛndəʊˈkɑːdɪəm

wsierdzie

mfk396316f51376978c1_1498134fk3963_104
epicardium ˌɛpɪˈkɑːdɪəm
epicardium ˌɛpɪˈkɑːdɪəm

nasierdzie

mhbmh8a16f51376978c1_1498134hbmh8a_521
examination ɪɡˌzæm.ɪˈneɪ.ʃən
examination ɪɡˌzæm.ɪˈneɪ.ʃən

badanie

medcfk716f51376978c1_1498134edcfk7_936
excretory system ɪkˈskriːt ˈsɪs.təm
excretory system ɪkˈskriːt ˈsɪs.təm

układ wydalniczy

m5amg2316f51376978c1_14981345amg23_500
external examination ɪkˈstɜː.nəl ɪɡˌzæm.ɪˈneɪ.ʃən
external examination ɪkˈstɜː.nəl ɪɡˌzæm.ɪˈneɪ.ʃən

badanie zewnętrzne

mjf7f7c16f51376978c1_1498134jf7f7c_466
external inspection ɪkˈstɜː.nəl ɪnˈspek.ʃən
external inspection ɪkˈstɜː.nəl ɪnˈspek.ʃən

oględziny zewnętrzne

mjdkfid16f51376978c1_1498134jdkfid_259
feed fiːd
feed fiːd

pasza

mk2h7e616f51376978c1_1498134k2h7e6_827
fetlock joint ˈfet.lɒk dʒɔɪnt
fetlock joint ˈfet.lɒk dʒɔɪnt

staw skokowy

mhbeafi16f51376978c1_1498134hbeafi_871
foot fʊt
foot fʊt

stopa

mb3bf5j16f51376978c1_1498134b3bf5j_352
forelimb ˈfɔːlɪm
forelimb ˈfɔːlɪm

kończyna piersiowa

mdgdk9m16f51376978c1_1498134dgdk9m_477
forestomach
forestomach

przedżołądek

mf8nbnn16f51376978c1_1498134f8nbnn_596
head hed
head hed

głowa

mjgjci416f51376978c1_1498134jgjci4_433
heart hɑːt
heart hɑːt

serce

mj5gjdh16f51376978c1_1498134j5gjdh_145
herbivores ˈhɜː.bɪ.vɔːr
herbivores ˈhɜː.bɪ.vɔːr

roślinożerne

mcmfan716f51376978c1_1498134cmfan7_858
hindlimb ˈhʌɪndlɪm
hindlimb ˈhʌɪndlɪm

kończyna miedniczna

mkenehf16f51376978c1_1498134kenehf_241
hoof huːf
hoof huːf

kopyto

mgkend216f51376978c1_1498134gkend2_111
humerus ˈhjuː.mə.rəs
humerus ˈhjuː.mə.rəs

kość ramienna

mn6ga7k16f51376978c1_1498134n6ga7k_672
iliac bone ˈɪl.i.æk bəʊn
iliac bone ˈɪl.i.æk bəʊn

kość biodrowa

mhhfnfa16f51376978c1_1498134hhfnfa_109
internal examination ɪnˈtɜː.nəl ɪɡˌzæm.ɪˈneɪ.ʃən
internal examination ɪnˈtɜː.nəl ɪɡˌzæm.ɪˈneɪ.ʃən

badanie wewnętrzne

mggd5ba16f51376978c1_1498134ggd5ba_889
kidney ˈkɪd.ni
kidney ˈkɪd.ni

nerka

m9fk3bj16f51376978c1_14981349fk3bj_217
laboratory test ləˈbɒr.ə.tər.i test
laboratory test ləˈbɒr.ə.tər.i test

badanie laboratoryjne

mffckh416f51376978c1_1498134ffckh4_718
large intestine lɑːdʒ ɪnˈtes.tɪn
large intestine lɑːdʒ ɪnˈtes.tɪn

jelito grube

ma9jcdb16f51376978c1_1498134a9jcdb_943
larynx ˈlær.ɪŋks
larynx ˈlær.ɪŋks

krtań

m8jgcnh16f51376978c1_14981348jgcnh_680
lungs lʌŋ
lungs lʌŋ

płuca

makejgc16f51376978c1_1498134akejgc_640
median plane ˈmiː.di.ən pleɪn
median plane ˈmiː.di.ən pleɪn

płaszczyzna pośrodkowa

mmgna7a16f51376978c1_1498134mgna7a_296
metacarpus ˌmet.əˈkɑː.pəs
metacarpus ˌmet.əˈkɑː.pəs

śródręcze

mjged8916f51376978c1_1498134jged89_386
monogastric ˌmɒnə(ʊ)ˈɡastrɪk
monogastric ˌmɒnə(ʊ)ˈɡastrɪk

żołądek jednokomorowy

mg7mdgd16f51376978c1_1498134g7mdgd_181
nasal cavity ˈneɪ.zəl ˈkæv.ə.ti
nasal cavity ˈneɪ.zəl ˈkæv.ə.ti

jama nosowa

m342dmc16f51376978c1_1498134342dmc_248
neck nek
neck nek

szyja, kark

manjn3316f51376978c1_1498134anjn33_355
nostrils ˈnɒs.trəl
nostrils ˈnɒs.trəl

nozdrza

mac9ffc16f51376978c1_1498134ac9ffc_813
oesophagus ɪˈsɒf.ə.ɡəs
oesophagus ɪˈsɒf.ə.ɡəs

przełyk

mchddcm16f51376978c1_1498134chddcm_537
omasum əʊˈmeɪsəm
omasum əʊˈmeɪsəm

księgi

m6827bf16f51376978c1_14981346827bf_712
omnivores ˈɒm.nɪ.vɔːr
omnivores ˈɒm.nɪ.vɔːr

wszystkożerne

mkkbjn516f51376978c1_1498134kkbjn5_104
oral cavity ˈɔː.rəl ˈkæv.ə.ti
oral cavity ˈɔː.rəl ˈkæv.ə.ti

jama ustna, jama gębowa

m3ejb9g16f51376978c1_14981343ejb9g_497
perineum ˌper.ɪˈniː.əm
perineum ˌper.ɪˈniː.əm

krocze

mhca7hg16f51376978c1_1498134hca7hg_333
post‑mortem examination ˌpəʊstˈmɔː.təm ɪɡˌzæm.ɪˈneɪ.ʃən
post‑mortem examination ˌpəʊstˈmɔː.təm ɪɡˌzæm.ɪˈneɪ.ʃən

sekcja zwłok

mcj89ci16f51376978c1_1498134cj89ci_517
re‑chewing
re‑chewing

powtórne przeżuwanie

m6aha4h16f51376978c1_14981346aha4h_137
reproductive system ˌriː.prəˈdʌk.tɪv ˈsɪs.təm
reproductive system ˌriː.prəˈdʌk.tɪv ˈsɪs.təm

układ rozrodczy

mmeddch16f51376978c1_1498134meddch_206
respiratory tract rɪˈspɪr.ə.tər.i ˌtrækt
respiratory tract rɪˈspɪr.ə.tər.i ˌtrækt

układ oddechowy

m4gb5g616f51376978c1_14981344gb5g6_410
retention of excess food rɪˈten.ʃən əv ɪkˈses fuːd
retention of excess food rɪˈten.ʃən əv ɪkˈses fuːd

zaleganie nadmiaru pokarmu

mjke5ne16f51376978c1_1498134jke5ne_257
reticulum rəˈtɪk.jə.ləm
reticulum rəˈtɪk.jə.ləm

czepiec

mhdm8dg16f51376978c1_1498134hdm8dg_449
ribs ˈrɪbz
ribs ˈrɪbz

żebra

mhbgcem16f51376978c1_1498134hbgcem_571
right atrial appendage raɪt ˈeɪ.tri.əl əˈpen.dɪdʒ
right atrial appendage raɪt ˈeɪ.tri.əl əˈpen.dɪdʒ

uszko prawe

mamdhfj16f51376978c1_1498134amdhfj_824
rumen ˈruːmɛn
rumen ˈruːmɛn

żwacz

mdidkkn16f51376978c1_1498134didkkn_269
ruminants ˈruː.mɪ.nənt
ruminants ˈruː.mɪ.nənt

przeżuwacze

mhjc8ej16f51376978c1_1498134hjc8ej_980
scapula ˈskæp.jə.lə
scapula ˈskæp.jə.lə

łopatka

m82ahej16f51376978c1_149813482ahej_618
shoulder joint ˈʃəʊl.dər dʒɔɪnt
shoulder joint ˈʃəʊl.dər dʒɔɪnt

staw barkowy

mk95ann16f51376978c1_1498134k95ann_222
skeleton ˈskel.ə.tən
skeleton ˈskel.ə.tən

szkielet

mni3fef16f51376978c1_1498134ni3fef_811
skull skʌl
skull skʌl

czaszka

m3imadi16f51376978c1_14981343imadi_860
small intestine smɔːl ɪnˈtes.tɪn
small intestine smɔːl ɪnˈtes.tɪn

jelito cienkie

mkbfkec16f51376978c1_1498134kbfkec_855
spleen spliːn
spleen spliːn

śledziona

mng6jbk16f51376978c1_1498134ng6jbk_582
statement ˈsteɪt.mənt
statement ˈsteɪt.mənt

orzeczenie

mm59jeh16f51376978c1_1498134m59jeh_279
sternum ˈstɜː.nəm
sternum ˈstɜː.nəm

mostek

mhnhnen16f51376978c1_1498134hnhnen_589
stomach ˈstʌm.ək
stomach ˈstʌm.ək

żołądek

mjd5n2m16f51376978c1_1498134jd5n2m_104
tail teɪl
tail teɪl

ogon

mhca2g516f51376978c1_1498134hca2g5_186
tarsals ˈtɑː.səl
tarsals ˈtɑː.səl

kości stępu

mc8jcim16f51376978c1_1498134c8jcim_764
the course of the post‑mortem examination ðə kɔːs əv ðə ˌpəʊstˈmɔː.təm ɪɡˌzæm.ɪˈneɪ.ʃən
the course of the post‑mortem examination ðə kɔːs əv ðə ˌpəʊstˈmɔː.təm ɪɡˌzæm.ɪˈneɪ.ʃən

przebieg sekcji

md38hnn16f51376978c1_1498134d38hnn_539
topographic anatomy ˌtɒpəˈɡrafɪk əˈnæt.ə.mi
topographic anatomy ˌtɒpəˈɡrafɪk əˈnæt.ə.mi

anatomia topograficzna

m6hnab616f51376978c1_14981346hnab6_346
trachea trəˈkiː.ə
trachea trəˈkiː.ə

tchawica

mc953em16f51376978c1_1498134c953em_519
transverse plane trænzˈvɜːs pleɪn
transverse plane trænzˈvɜːs pleɪn

płaszczyzna poprzeczna

md2hjhk16f51376978c1_1498134d2hjhk_501
trunk trʌŋk
trunk trʌŋk

tułów

mnbgc5k16f51376978c1_1498134nbgc5k_764
ureters jʊəˈriː.tər
ureters jʊəˈriː.tər

moczowody

mjn7gmg16f51376978c1_1498134jn7gmg_280
urinary bladder ˈjʊə.rɪ.nər.i ˈblæd.ər
urinary bladder ˈjʊə.rɪ.nər.i ˈblæd.ər

pęcherz moczowy

mkg9c4n16f51376978c1_1498134kg9c4n_825
valve vælv
valve vælv

zastawka

m7nkeci16f51376978c1_14981347nkeci_204
ventricle ˈven.trɪ.kəl
ventricle ˈven.trɪ.kəl

komora

mmn2efd16f51376978c1_1498134mn2efd_171
vertebrae ˈvəːtɪbrə
vertebrae ˈvəːtɪbrə

kręgi

m4663g916f51376978c1_14981344663g9_238
vertebral column ˈvɜː.tɪ.brəl ˈkɒl.əm
vertebral column ˈvɜː.tɪ.brəl ˈkɒl.əm

kręgosłup

ma86dbe16f51376978c1_1498134a86dbe_939
withers ˈwɪð.əz
withers ˈwɪð.əz

kłąb