After watching the film “Post-mortem examination of a pig” connect the Polish terms with their English counterparts. Po obejrzeniu filmu „Sekcja zwłok świni”, połącz polskie terminy z ich angielskim odpowiednikami.
After watching the film ““Post-mortem examination of a pig” decide whether the sentences are true or false. Na podstawie obejrzanego filmu „sekcja zwłok świni” ustosunkuj się do poniższych zdań wskazując czy są one prawdziwe czy fałszywe.
Example: Early spring is the time when bees fall into the winter sleep.
The spring aura does not make the bees willing to work.
We should help bees by giving them access to honey flow base.
To improve the honey flow base in an apiary, we should select plants with low honey and pollen capacity.
A large honey plants acreage will ensure that the bees have honey flow used for development and commodity.
If the bees have access to a lot of plants of the same type, we will obtain varietal honey.
After the blooming season the beehives should not return to the apiary.
Varied decorative plants, planted in the vicinity of the beehive cannot provide enough pollen and nectar, especially in the summer.
If you take care of the apiary properly, the bees will reward you with various bee products.
Example: Bee farm should be located in the part of the garden where it is calm and quiet.
Source: Funmedia, cc0.
Anatomy of the farm animal's heart
Anatomy of a cow. Skeletal system.
Professor: Can you tell me what is the function of a skeleton for animal?
Student: The science which studies the structure of the skeleton is osteology. Animals can move thanks to specialised body organs. The parts of this system include muscles and bones which form the skeletonm53393380fed10821_1510317499568_0skeleton. It is a system of leverages to which the muscles are attached.
Prof: And what is the structure of a skeleton?
S: Animal skeleton consists of two parts – an axial and appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton includes the bones of the trunk, tail and skull. The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the thoracic limbm53393380fed10821_1510317523820_0thoracic limb, that is the forelimb – and the bones of the pelvic limb, that is the hindlimb. The trunk bones include the vertebral columnm53393380fed10821_1510317548226_0vertebral column, ribsm53393380fed10821_1510317572635_0ribs and sternumm53393380fed10821_1510317584477_0sternum.
The vertebral column consists of the following parts: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal. The segments of the vertebral column consist of the vertebraem53393380fed10821_1510317600207_0vertebrae. The bones of the head form the skullm53393380fed10821_1510317618553_0skull which is composed of the cranium and viscerocranium. In animals the forelimbs are connected to the trunk through the shoulder girdle which is composed of the bones among which is the scapulam53393380fed10821_1510317630504_0scapula and it forms together with the humerusm53393380fed10821_1510317647890_0humerus the shoulder jointm53393380fed10821_1510317671021_0shoulder joint.
The forelimb consists of the humerus, the bones of the forearm, that is the radius and ulna, which in cattle and pigs are fused.
The forelimb ends with the hand, that is the front footm53393380fed10821_1510317696153_0foot – it is composed of the carpusm53393380fed10821_1510317708887_0carpus, metacarpusm53393380fed10821_1510317767706_0metacarpus and phalanges which are connected with each other by a joint. In cows there are only two phalanges – III and IV which form the cloven hoof, and horse has only III phalange – a hoof.
The pelvic limbs, also called the hindlimbs are connected to the trunk by the pelvic girdle which consists of the iliumm53393380fed10821_1510317790623_0ilium, ischium and pubis.
The pelvic limb consists of the femur, the shank bones – the tibia and fibula, and the foot which consists of the tarsalsm53393380fed10821_1510317811051_0tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges.
P: Thank you very much. You’ve prepared very well for the exam. You get five from me.
S: Thank you very much.
Anatomy and physiology of digestive system in cattle
Technician: How do you think, what is the main feature differentiating the cow from the pig in terms of anatomy and breeding conditions?
Trainee: Pigs are omnivoresm53393380fed10821_1510321732297_0omnivores and live in the piggery, while cows are herbivoresm53393380fed10821_1510321753574_0herbivores and grazing on the pastures or stay in the barn.
T: That’s true. But this difference results from the anatomy of their digestive system. The pigs and horses are monogastricm53393380fed10821_1510321802267_0monogastric, while the goats and sheep are the so‑called ruminantsm53393380fed10821_1510321824427_0ruminants. They have a complex stomach, with several chambers, whose three first parts are called forestomachesm53393380fed10821_1510321841326_0forestomaches.
Trainee: Does this mean that their digestion processm53393380fed10821_1510321871119_0digestion process is different?
T: Yes, and it is important in handling each of the species. In monogastric animals, such as horses and pigs, the food is broken down into pieces and mixed with saliva in the oral cavitym53393380fed10821_1510321894042_0oral cavity, then it passes through the oesophagusm53393380fed10821_1510561210659_0oesophagus to the stomach. When the food reaches the small intestinem53393380fed10821_1510561232204_0small intestine, it is further digested with the help of the gastric juice.
Trainee: And what about the ruminants?
T: Ruminants have a complex stomachm53393380fed10821_1510561301855_0complex stomach and this process is different. The food, which is only partly broken down into pieces, passes from the oral cavity into the rumen and reticulum. The ruminants chewm53393380fed10821_1510561328385_0chew the food very briefly. To facilitate the digestion, the food is re‑chewedm53393380fed10821_1510561421308_0re‑chewed after 15‑45 minutes after ingestion. The food comes back in small pieces from the rumen and from the reticulum again to the oral cavity where they are carefully chewed, insalivated and re‑swallowed. Do you know, gentlemen, why is it for?
Trainee: I have no idea.
Trainee 2: In the rumen various components of feedm53393380fed10821_1510561445251_0feed are digested, among others the fibre (cellulosem53393380fed10821_1510561608924_0cellulose) which is the main element of the walls of plant cells. Thanks to this, the elements of plant cells can be utilised by the body. Non‑ruminants don’t digest fibre almost not at all.
T: Very good. Then the food goes from the rumenm53393380fed10821_1510561797911_0rumen through the reticulumm53393380fed10821_1510561812005_0reticulum and through the omasumm53393380fed10821_1510561835392_0omasum to the abomasumm53393380fed10821_1510561870251_0abomasum where it is digested in the same process as in the monogastric animals. Further digestion in the small and large intestine is the same in both species of animals.
Doctor: Dear ladies and gentlemen! Today I would like to explain you the concept of topographic anatomym53393380fed10821_1510568994593_0topographic anatomy. Its purpose is to teach you the spatial perception of animal body, the layers of the body and how to describe the location of organs. What do you think, how we can divide the animal body?
Audience: Front and back.
D: Very good. It is the first plane which is called the transverse planem53393380fed10821_1510569157181_0transverse plane. It divides the body into cranialm53393380fed10821_1510569286502_0cranial and caudalm53393380fed10821_1510569350660_0caudal part. In what other way can we divide the animal body?
A: The right and left part.
D: Great. It is the median planem53393380fed10821_1510570105051_0median plane which goes along the long axis of the body and divides it into two symmetrical halves – right and left one. How else?
A: Upper and lower part.
D: Super. These planes are called dorsal and ventral planes. They allow for specifying whether the organ is closer or further away from the spine.
A: And what are the parts of animal body?
D: Animal body consists of the following main parts: the headm53393380fed10821_1510570128619_0the head, neckm53393380fed10821_1510570351952_0neck, trunkm53393380fed10821_1510570151996_0trunk, thoracicm53393380fed10821_1510570314824_0thoracic and pelvic limbsm53393380fed10821_1510570344299_0pelvic limbs (forelimbs and hindlimbs), and tail.
There are several regions in those parts – cervical, axillarym53393380fed10821_1510570392994_0axillary and inguinal which allow for specifying the location of organs and smaller structures.
Trainee: Do those parts, that you’ve mentioned, have the same name in all animals?
D: Yes. If you know those names, you can use them while referring to all species of farm animals.
That would be all for today. Thank you very much and see you at my next lecture.
Based on the lecture of a doctor on the subject of “Topographic anatomy” connect Polish terms with their English counterparts. Na podstawie wykładu lekarz na temat „Anatomia topograficzna”, połącz polskie terminy z ich angielskimi odpowiednikami.