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E-resource FORESTRY

Źródło: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.

The characteristics of forest soil types

1. Film in the standard version.

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The forester updates an intern’s knowledge regarding pedology, putting emphasis on the types of soil in his forestry. They discuss the characteristic elements of soil. Leśniczy uaktualnia wiedzę praktykantki z zakresu gleboznawstwa, kładąc nacisk na typy gleb występujących w jego leśnictwie. Omawia charakterystyczne elementy gleb.

2. Film with subtitles.

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The forester updates an intern’s knowledge regarding pedology, putting emphasis on the types of soil in his forestry. They discuss the characteristic elements of soil. Leśniczy uaktualnia wiedzę praktykantki z zakresu gleboznawstwa, kładąc nacisk na typy gleb występujących w jego leśnictwie. Omawia charakterystyczne elementy gleb.
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3. Film with subtitles and pauses. Listen and repeat after the speaker.

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The forester updates an intern’s knowledge regarding pedology, putting emphasis on the types of soil in his forestry. They discuss the characteristic elements of soil. Leśniczy uaktualnia wiedzę praktykantki z zakresu gleboznawstwa, kładąc nacisk na typy gleb występujących w jego leśnictwie. Omawia charakterystyczne elementy gleb.
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4. Film with subtitles and narration.

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The forester updates an intern’s knowledge regarding pedology, putting emphasis on the types of soil in his forestry. They discuss the characteristic elements of soil. Leśniczy uaktualnia wiedzę praktykantki z zakresu gleboznawstwa, kładąc nacisk na typy gleb występujących w jego leśnictwie. Omawia charakterystyczne elementy gleb.
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classicmobile
Exercise 1
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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classicmobile
Exercise 2
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Forest cultivation

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The animation presents the cycle of forest cultivation. The phases of tree stand development are listed. Intermediate treatments are described. Przybliżenie cyklu hodowli lasu. Wymienione zostają fazy rozwojowe drzewostanu. Przedstawione zostają zabiegi pielęgnacyjne.
classicmobile
Exercise 3
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Phyto irrigation and agro irrigation treatments in forests

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The animation discusses phyto irrigation and agro irrigation treatments in forests. It describes and explains phyto irrigation treatments such as species restoration, the introduction of the understorey, anti-erosive plantings. It shows a few agro irrigation treatments, e.g., the reclamation of post-mining lands, the improvement of water relations, deep tillage and anti-erosive activities. Animacja omawia zabiegi fitomelioracyjne i agromelioracyjne w lesie. Przybliża takie zabiegi fitomelioracyjne jak restytucje gatunków, wprowadzanie podszytów, obsadzanie antyerozyjne. Przedstawia kilka zabiegów agromelioracyjnych tj. rekultywację gruntów pokopalnianych, poprawę stosunków wodnych, głęboszowanie gleby czy działania przeciwerozyjne.
classicmobile
Exercise 4
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Preparing enrichment plantings for a forest protection proposal

The hypertext material is a dialogue between a forester and a deputy forester. They plan the area of the enrichment plantings necessary to make on the previously established forest cultivations. Special attention is paid to a few three‑year‑old cultivations, damaged mostly by frosts. They discuss the choice of a species that will be the most resistant to frost.

Hipertekst jest dialogiem leśniczego z podleśniczyną. Uzgadniają powierzchnię poprawek niezbędnych do wykonania na założonych wcześniej uprawach leśnych. Szczególną uwagę poświęcają kilku uprawom trzyletnim. Wystąpiły na nich szkody spowodowane mrozem. Dyskutują nad wyborem gatunku, który będzie najbardziej odporny na mróz.

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Forester: Miss Barbra, today we will work on the forest cultivationm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279637332_0forest cultivation proposal. We will focus on the size of the area needed to make enrichment plantingsm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279718401_0enrichment plantings.

Deputy forester: In most of the inspected districts, the removed treesm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279733582_0removed trees don’t exceed 6% so enrichment plantings aren’t needed. A voluntary seedingm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279738479_0voluntary seeding of pine took place there and the tree cover reaches 120%. However, in the oak and beech cultivations, serious enrichment plantings are needed as a result of late frostm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279743621_0frost in May. Also, volesm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279748379_0voles have damaged the beech areas.m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279753543_0m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279753543_0

Forester: First the preparation of the soil. We will make scalpsm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279753543_0scalps with a 40x40cm digging throughm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279762480_0digging through in the quantity of 8000 units/ha everywhere. For the plantings, we will use three‑year old common oak and two‑year‑old beech. Additionally, we will plan intermediate treatments in the oak through hoeingm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279767416_0hoeingto uncover the root collarsm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279772536_0root collars.

Deputy forester: Could we replace the oaks with beeches in part of the shelter wood?

Forester: No, the common oak seedlings from our nurserym3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279777622_0nursery are very good planting material. Even in the case of late frost next year, they shouldn’t be as dangerous since the oak will be protected by grassm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279782995_0grass and raspberrym3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279787842_0raspberry. I’m more worried about the voles. If thebirds of preym3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279793098_0birds of prey don’t reduce their numbers, we might be forced to make enrichment plantings in the next years. We need a bird hidem3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497279799633_0hide.

Deputy forester: Will the hide solve the problem?

Forester: I think so. From the hide, the birds will be able to observe the terrain in search of, e.g., voles. That way, we can regulatem3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1531903085792_0regulate the number of pests.

Deputy forester: You’re right. I also calculated the enrichment planting surface in all of the divisions. There are 2ha together. We need 8 thousand oak seedlings to supplement what was destroyed by the frosts. We need just as many beech seedlings**m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1531903092677_0seedlings**: we will replace the seedlings destroyed by voles. The engineer supervisor has confirmed the validity of our propositions.

Forester: Good work. Let’s introduce the particular activities into the cultivation planm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1531903101558_0cultivation plan.

classicmobile
Exercise 5
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Forest habitat types

The hypertext presents a conversation between a forester and an intern. After a forestry inspection, the forester describes the habitat types in the area. The forester asks the intern to what habitat a given area belongs to. Together, they elaborate on their answers.

Hipertekst jest rozmową leśniczego z praktykantką. Po lustracji leśnictwa leśniczy przedstawia główne typy siedliskowe lasu występujące na jego terenie. Wypytuje praktykantkę do jakiego typu siedliska zakwalifikowałaby daną powierzchnię. Wzajemnie uzupełniają swoje wypowiedzi.

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Forester: Miss Monica, I will show you the habitat typesm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497292341857_0habitat types present in the forestry today.

Intern: There are pine and spruce tree stands here, which are coniferous forest sitesm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497292338305_0coniferous forest sites.

Forester: On the area of 2400ha, I have a few habitat types. On the southern site, on a dune, there is a dry coniferous forestm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497292330786_0dry coniferous forest. A few districts consist of a fresh coniferous forestm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497292326285_0fresh coniferous forest of the more humid variety. The next few districts are a fresh mixed coniferous forestm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497292312053_0mixed coniferous forest, of the more humid variety too. In the central part of the forestry, there is a fresh forestm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497292307534_0fresh forest and afresh mixed forestm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497292302003_0fresh mixed forest. The true gem of the area is a 100ha ash alder forestm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497292294450_0ash alder forest. Please, tell me what you know about dry and fresh coniferous forests.

Intern: The dry coniferous forest is a poor habitat, where pine and birch grow as pioneer species. We often encounter lichenm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497292283746_0lichen there. On the other hand, the fresh coniferous forest grows on spodic type soils and on rusty soilsm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497292278430_0rusty soils with a layer of acid humus of the morm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497292272551_0mor type. Pine with the addition of birch dominates in the tree stand. And in the lower stratum there is beech, lime tree, oak, spruce and fir.

Forester: Very good. What about the fresh mixed coniferous forest in the whole lowland?

Intern: Those habitats occupy about 18% of forest areas in Poland. The dominating species is pine. The admixture species are spruce, oak, beech, fir; less often larch, aspen, birch, hornbeam, lime tree, maple.

Forester: Great. What about the ash alder forest?

Intern: It occupies fertile, marsh habitats. This habitat is often a transition to a damp forest. However, the cluster structurem3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497292265719_0cluster structure typical for alder is not developed. The tree stand is made up of ash, black alder; the admixture species are elm, downy birch. Ash alder is characterized by a strong cluster and a unit and cluster mix.

Forester: You have very good knowledge of the material. Congratulations.

Intern: Thank you.

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classicmobile
Exercise 6
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Functions of forests

The hypertext is an article from a local newspaper. It describes the economic and non‑economic functions of forests. It explains their interactions and the principles of forest management that ensure forest continuity.

Hipertekst jest artykułem w gazecie lokalnej. Zawiera opis funkcji gospodarczej i pozagospodarczej lasu. Wyjaśnia ich wzajemną interakcję oraz zasady prowadzenia gospodarki leśnej gwarantujące zachowanie ciągłości lasu.

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A forest: the cradle of humanity and culture. It has contributed to the achievement of the current level of economic and cultural life worldwide. The functionsm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302764422_0functions of forests have changed, but they have always been important for the development of society.

What kinds of functions do forests have? Forest functions can be divided into productive (economic) functions and non‑productive ones, which are further divided into ecological, cultural, social. The most important principle of rational forest management is to ensure the continuity of forests, to increase the areas of forest lands and to preserve their biodiversitym3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302754287_0biodiversity.

Let's start with the economic functions. Forests are property: forest lands are a part of national wealth and contribute to national income. Forests provide many raw materialsm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302748645_0raw materials. They condition the development of a number of industries important for national economy.

Forests also have ecological functions. Due to the special properties of forest soils, forests are of great importance for water protectionm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302736917_0protection. Forest soils with litter and humusm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302733680_0humus layers easily absorb and store water. Forests prevent water pollutionm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302728712_0pollution. It’s in fact the only irreplaceable spring water filterm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302618223_0filter.

Forests also perform protective functions against natural disastersm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302614191_0natural disasters. Forested areas stabilizem3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302609415_0stabilize the land and protect the people, buildings and structures from landslidesm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302603612_0landslides, avalanchesm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302598187_0avalanches and mountain streams.

Of course, forest areas are the richest source of plant and animal life, often the only refugem3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302589553_0refuge of some species.

The social functions of forests can’t be forgotten. It’s a source of calmness and tranquility; a place of rest and walking. Forests also influence the enrichment of the labor market and the creation of various forms of the use of the forestm3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1497302944027_0use of the forest by local communities.

classicmobile
Exercise 7
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Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Gallery

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Memory

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Play the game. Zagraj w grę.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
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Dictionary

agro irrigation [ˈaɡrəʊ ɪrɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
agro irrigation [ˈaɡrəʊ ɪrɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

agromelioracja

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anti‑erosive [ˈanti ɪˈrəʊsɪv] [adjective]
anti‑erosive [ˈanti ɪˈrəʊsɪv] [adjective]

przeciwerozyjny

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ash alder forest, ash alder forests [aʃ ɔːldə ˈfɒrɪst] [singular, noun]
ash alder forest, ash alder forests [aʃ ɔːldə ˈfɒrɪst] [singular, noun]

ols jesionowy

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avalanche [ˈavəlɑːnʃ] [singular, noun]
avalanche [ˈavəlɑːnʃ] [singular, noun]

lawina

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beech forest [biːtʃ ˈfɒrɪst] [singular, noun]
beech forest [biːtʃ ˈfɒrɪst] [singular, noun]

las bukowy

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biodiversity [ˌbʌɪə(ʊ)dʌɪˈvəːsɪti] [singular, noun]
biodiversity [ˌbʌɪə(ʊ)dʌɪˈvəːsɪti] [singular, noun]

bioróżnorodność

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bird of prey, birds of prey [bəːd ɒv preɪ] [phrase]
bird of prey, birds of prey [bəːd ɒv preɪ] [phrase]

ptak drapieżny

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brown soil [braʊn sɔɪl] [phrase]
brown soil [braʊn sɔɪl] [phrase]

gleba brunatna

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cluster structure [ˈklʌstə ˈstrʌktʃə] [phrase]
cluster structure [ˈklʌstə ˈstrʌktʃə] [phrase]

struktura kępowa

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coniferous forest site, coniferous forest sites [kəˈnɪfərəs ˈfɒrɪst sʌɪt] [phrase]
coniferous forest site, coniferous forest sites [kəˈnɪfərəs ˈfɒrɪst sʌɪt] [phrase]

siedlisko borowe

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coniferous forest, coniferous forests [kəˈnɪfərəs ˈfɒrɪst] [phrase]
coniferous forest, coniferous forests [kəˈnɪfərəs ˈfɒrɪst] [phrase]

bór

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crop rotation [krɒp rə(ʊ)ˈteɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
crop rotation [krɒp rə(ʊ)ˈteɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

płodozmian

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cultivation plan [kʌltɪˈveɪʃn plan] [singular, noun]
cultivation plan [kʌltɪˈveɪʃn plan] [singular, noun]

plan hodowli

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deep tillage [diːp ˈtɪlɪdʒ] [phrase]
deep tillage [diːp ˈtɪlɪdʒ] [phrase]

glęboszowanie

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digging through ['dɪgɪŋ θruː] [phrase]
digging through ['dɪgɪŋ θruː] [phrase]

przekopanie

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double disc trencher, double disc trenchers [ˈdʌb(ə)l dɪsk ˈtrɛnʃə] [phrase]
double disc trencher, double disc trenchers [ˈdʌb(ə)l dɪsk ˈtrɛnʃə] [phrase]

pług aktywny dwutalerzowy

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498035725028_0
draining [dreɪnɪŋ] [singular, noun]
draining [dreɪnɪŋ] [singular, noun]

odwadnianie

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dry forest, dry forests [drʌɪ ˈfɒrɪst] [phrase]
dry forest, dry forests [drʌɪ ˈfɒrɪst] [phrase]

bór suchy

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dune, dunes [djuːn] [singular, noun]
dune, dunes [djuːn] [singular, noun]

wydma

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dust, dusts [dʌst] [singular, noun]
dust, dusts [dʌst] [singular, noun]

pyły

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enrichment planting [ɛnˈrɪtʃm(ə)nt plɑːntɪŋ] [singular, noun]
enrichment planting [ɛnˈrɪtʃm(ə)nt plɑːntɪŋ] [singular, noun]

poprawka

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498037463889_0
extension of the production cycle over time [ɛkˈstɛnʃ(ə)n ɒv ðə prəˈdʌkʃ(ə)n ˈsʌɪk(ə)l ˈəʊvə tʌɪm] [phrase]
extension of the production cycle over time [ɛkˈstɛnʃ(ə)n ɒv ðə prəˈdʌkʃ(ə)n ˈsʌɪk(ə)l ˈəʊvə tʌɪm] [phrase]

rozciągnięcie cyklu produkcji w czasie

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498037585993_0
fertile [ˈfəːtʌɪl] [adjective]
fertile [ˈfəːtʌɪl] [adjective]

żyzny

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498038179960_0
fertilizing [ˈfəːtɪlʌɪzɪŋ] [singular, noun]
fertilizing [ˈfəːtɪlʌɪzɪŋ] [singular, noun]

nawożenie

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498038180171_0
fill‑in planting [fɪl ɪn plɑːntɪŋ] [singular, noun]
fill‑in planting [fɪl ɪn plɑːntɪŋ] [singular, noun]

uzupełnienie

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498038357148_0
filter [ˈfɪltə] [singular, noun]
filter [ˈfɪltə] [singular, noun]

filtr

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498038512559_0
fluvioglacial [fluːvɪəʊˈɡleɪsɪəl] [adjective]
fluvioglacial [fluːvɪəʊˈɡleɪsɪəl] [adjective]

wolnolodowcowy

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498038693826_0
forest cultivation [ˈfɒrɪst kʌltɪˈveɪʃn] [phrase]
forest cultivation [ˈfɒrɪst kʌltɪˈveɪʃn] [phrase]

hodowla lasu

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498038800708_0
forest habitat type, forest habitat types [ˈfɒrɪst ˈhabɪtat tʌɪp] [singular, noun]
forest habitat type, forest habitat types [ˈfɒrɪst ˈhabɪtat tʌɪp] [singular, noun]

typ siedliskowy lasu

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498038885595_0
forest use [ˈfɒrɪst juːz] [singular, noun]
forest use [ˈfɒrɪst juːz] [singular, noun]

użytkowanie lasu

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498038979273_0
for**estry cutter, forestry cutters [ˈfɒrɪstri ˈkʌtə] [phrase]
for**estry cutter, forestry cutters [ˈfɒrɪstri ˈkʌtə] [phrase]

frez leśny

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498039057621_0
fresh coniferous forest, fresh coniferous forests [frɛʃ kəˈnɪfərəs ˈfɒrɪst] [phrase]
fresh coniferous forest, fresh coniferous forests [frɛʃ kəˈnɪfərəs ˈfɒrɪst] [phrase]

bór świeży

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498039065229_0
fresh forest [frɛʃ ˈfɒrɪst] [phrase]
fresh forest [frɛʃ ˈfɒrɪst] [phrase]

las świeży

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498039072609_0
fresh mixed forest [frɛʃ mɪkst ˈfɒrɪst] [phrase]
fresh mixed forest [frɛʃ mɪkst ˈfɒrɪst] [phrase]

las świeży mieszany

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498039080933_0
frost [frɒst] [singular, noun]
frost [frɒst] [singular, noun]

przymrozek

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498039521057_0
function [ˈfʌŋ(k)ʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
function [ˈfʌŋ(k)ʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

funkcja

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498039528624_0
glacial loam [ˈɡleɪsɪəl ləʊm] [phrase]
glacial loam [ˈɡleɪsɪəl ləʊm] [phrase]

iły polodowcowe

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498039534495_0
glacial sands [ˈɡleɪsɪəl sands] [phrase]
glacial sands [ˈɡleɪsɪəl sands] [phrase]

piaski zwałowe

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498039541251_0
grass [ɡrɑːs] [singular, noun]
grass [ɡrɑːs] [singular, noun]

trawa

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498039546364_0
habitat type, habitat types [ˈhabɪtat tʌɪp] [singular, noun]
habitat type, habitat types [ˈhabɪtat tʌɪp] [singular, noun]

typ siedliskowy

m3fccd9a3cc7211ec_1498039552067_0
habitat, habitats [ˈhabɪtat] [singular, noun]
habitat, habitats [ˈhabɪtat] [singular, noun]

siedlisko

hide, hides [hʌɪd] [singular, noun]
hide, hides [hʌɪd] [singular, noun]

czatownia

hoeing [həʊɪŋ] [singular, noun]
hoeing [həʊɪŋ] [singular, noun]

motyczenie

humus [ˈhjuːməs] [singular, noun]
humus [ˈhjuːməs] [singular, noun]

humus

interspecies competition [ɪnˈtəːˈspiːʃɪz kɒmpɪˈtɪʃ(ə)n] [phrase]
interspecies competition [ɪnˈtəːˈspiːʃɪz kɒmpɪˈtɪʃ(ə)n] [phrase]

konkurencja wewnątrzgatunkowa

irrigation [ɪrɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
irrigation [ɪrɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

nawadnianie

landslide, landslides [ˈlan(d)slʌɪd] [singular, noun]
landslide, landslides [ˈlan(d)slʌɪd] [singular, noun]

osuwisko

lichen [ˈlɪtʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
lichen [ˈlɪtʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

porosty

loaming [ləʊmɪŋ] [singular, noun]
loaming [ləʊmɪŋ] [singular, noun]

iłowanie

microclimate [ˈmʌɪkrə(ʊ)ˌklʌɪmət] [singular, noun]
microclimate [ˈmʌɪkrə(ʊ)ˌklʌɪmət] [singular, noun]

mikroklimat

mixed forest, mixed forests [mɪkst ˈfɒrɪst] [phrase]
mixed forest, mixed forests [mɪkst ˈfɒrɪst] [phrase]

bór mieszany

mor [mɔː] [singular, noun]
mor [mɔː] [singular, noun]

mor

natural disaster, natural disasters [ˈnatʃ(ə)r(ə)l dɪˈzɑːstə] [singular, noun]
natural disaster, natural disasters [ˈnatʃ(ə)r(ə)l dɪˈzɑːstə] [singular, noun]

klęski żywiołowe

natural seeding [ˈnatʃ(ə)r(ə)l siːdɪŋ] [phrase]
natural seeding [ˈnatʃ(ə)r(ə)l siːdɪŋ] [phrase]

samosiew

nursery, nurseries [ˈnəːs(ə)ri] [singular, noun]
nursery, nurseries [ˈnəːs(ə)ri] [singular, noun]

szkółka

oak forest [əʊk ˈfɒrɪst] [singular, noun]
oak forest [əʊk ˈfɒrɪst] [singular, noun]

las dębowy

one row planter, one row planters [wʌn rəʊ ˈplɑːntə] [singular, noun]
one row planter, one row planters [wʌn rəʊ ˈplɑːntə] [singular, noun]

sadzarka jednorzędowa

open pit, open pits [ˈəʊp(ə)n pɪt] [singular, noun]
open pit, open pits [ˈəʊp(ə)n pɪt] [singular, noun]

sadzarka jednorzędowa

papilionaceous plant, papilionaceous plants [pəˌpɪlɪəˈneɪʃəs plɑːnt] [phrase]
papilionaceous plant, papilionaceous plants [pəˌpɪlɪəˈneɪʃəs plɑːnt] [phrase]

rośliny motylkowe

pedology [pɛˈdɒlədʒi] [singular, noun]
pedology [pɛˈdɒlədʒi] [singular, noun]

gleboznawstwo

phyto irrigation [ˈfʌɪtəʊ ɪrɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
phyto irrigation [ˈfʌɪtəʊ ɪrɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

fitomelioracja

planter, planters [ˈplɑːntə] [singular, noun]
planter, planters [ˈplɑːntə] [singular, noun]

sadzarka

polewood [pəʊlwʊd] [singular, noun]
polewood [pəʊlwʊd] [singular, noun]

drągowina

pollution [pəˈluːʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
pollution [pəˈluːʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

zanieczyszczanie

protection [prəˈtɛkʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
protection [prəˈtɛkʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

ochrona

raspberry, raspberries [ˈrɑːzb(ə)ri] [singular, noun]
raspberry, raspberries [ˈrɑːzb(ə)ri] [singular, noun]

malina

raw material [rɔː məˈtɪərɪəl] [singular, noun]
raw material [rɔː məˈtɪərɪəl] [singular, noun]

surowiec

reclamation [rɛkləˈmeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
reclamation [rɛkləˈmeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

rekultywacja

refuge [ˈrɛfjuːdʒ] [singular, noun]
refuge [ˈrɛfjuːdʒ] [singular, noun]

ostoja

regulate [ˈrɛɡjʊleɪt] [verb]
regulate [ˈrɛɡjʊleɪt] [verb]

regulować

removed tree, removed trees [rɪ'mu:vd triː] [phrase]
removed tree, removed trees [rɪ'mu:vd triː] [phrase]

wypady

restoration [rɛstəˈreɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
restoration [rɛstəˈreɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

restytucja

root collar, root collars [ruːt ˈkɒlə] [singular, noun]
root collar, root collars [ruːt ˈkɒlə] [singular, noun]

szyjki korzeniowe

rusty soil [ˈrʌsti sɔɪl] [phrase]
rusty soil [ˈrʌsti sɔɪl] [phrase]

gleba rdzawa

sandblasting [ˈsan(d)blɑːstɪŋ] [singular, noun]
sandblasting [ˈsan(d)blɑːstɪŋ] [singular, noun]

piaskowanie

sandur [sɑːndəː] [adjective]
sandur [sɑːndəː] [adjective]

sandrowy

scalp, scalps [skalp] [singular, noun]
scalp, scalps [skalp] [singular, noun]

talerz

seed tree, seed trees [siːd triː] [singular, noun]
seed tree, seed trees [siːd triː] [singular, noun]

nasiennik

seedling, seedlings [ˈsiːdlɪŋ] [singular, noun]
seedling, seedlings [ˈsiːdlɪŋ] [singular, noun]

sadzonka

slag heap, slag heaps [slaɡ hiːp] [singular, noun]
slag heap, slag heaps [slaɡ hiːp] [singular, noun]

hałda

small polewood [smɔːl pəʊlwʊd] [phrase]
small polewood [smɔːl pəʊlwʊd] [phrase]

tyczkowina

soil preparation [sɔɪl ˌprɛpəˈreɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
soil preparation [sɔɪl ˌprɛpəˈreɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

przygotowanie gleby

soil profile [sɔɪl ˈprəʊfʌɪl] [singular, noun]
soil profile [sɔɪl ˈprəʊfʌɪl] [singular, noun]

przekrój gleby

spodic soil [ˈspɒdɪk sɔɪl] [phrase]
spodic soil [ˈspɒdɪk sɔɪl] [phrase]

gleba bielicowa

stabilize [ˈsteɪbɪlʌɪz] [verb]
stabilize [ˈsteɪbɪlʌɪz] [verb]

stabilizować

vole, voles [vəʊl] [singular, noun]
vole, voles [vəʊl] [singular, noun]

nornica

voluntary seeding [ˈvɒlənt(ə)ri siːdɪŋ] [phrase]
voluntary seeding [ˈvɒlənt(ə)ri siːdɪŋ] [phrase]

obsiew boczny