Lesson plan (Polish)
to indicate when and in what circumstances Poland regained its independence;
to list the greatest champions of the “Polish Cause” during World War I and the fight for the borders of the reborn Polish state;
to characterize the concepts of regaining independence;
to describe what difficulties did the reborn Polish state had to face.
For the entire Partition period the Poles wondered what should be done to regain independence. And when it happens – what form should the reborn Polish state assume? In the second half of the nineteenth century, two great Polish politicians – Józef Piłsudski and Roman Dmowski – began their activities. They devised two ways for the Poles to strive for their independence. Piłsudski aimed to incite another great uprising. Dmowski rejected the idea of armed violence and sought to obtain independence through diplomacyDiplomacydiplomacy. During World War I Piłsudski created the Polish Legions, an armed formation fighting alongside the Austro‑Hungarian army. Dmowski used diplomacy in order to solicit the acknowledgement of the Polish interests by the Western powers. Owing to their efforts, as well as favorable political conditions (the breakdown of all three partitioning states), in the autumn of 1918 the independent Polish state was reborn, and subsequently acknowledged on the international stage.
Match the states that partitioned Poland to their respective military blocs.
Austro-Hungary, Russian Empire, German Empire
Look carefully at the map and describe how the political situation looked on the eve of the great war.
It is 1914. The war, long‑awaited by the Poles, erupts. The partitioning states are fighting one another. Who will support whom? Remember that in those times nobody knew what the outcome would be!
Decision tree – support the Central Powers or the Entente?
Objectives and values: to regain independence.
Possible solutions: Support the Central Powers. Support the Entente.
What would the positive and negative effects of each of the solutions be?
Were there other possibilities? What were they?
remain passive – we do not support anyone
we silently support both sides
we switch alliances as the situation progresses
Mark your choices and compare them with the choices of the heroes of the fight for independence during World War I.
|Me||Józef Piłsudski||Roman Dmowski|
|Better to support the Entente||□||□||□|
|Better to support the Central Powers||□||□||□|
|We need to fight in the country||□||□||□|
|We need to fight as emigrés||□||□||□|
|Better to fight under arms||□||□||□|
|Better to resort to diplomacy||□||□||□|
Match the photography to the description and describe how each person contributed to the regaining of the Polish independence.
Read the timeline of the Polish struggle for independence. Afterwards, list the most important people and events that contributed to Poland regaining its independence, as well as the acknowledgement of that fact by other countries.
Which of the fathers of the Polish independence said that? Match the quote with the person.
<i>I shall not have aims other than the good of the Motherland. I wish to work only and solely for the good of the whole of Poland, whose freedom, unity, own coast and full independence need to be fought for by the Polish military.</i>, <i>We are a bold and proud nation, and even despite the misfortunes that befell us and the blows that afflicted us we refuse to bow down as slaves would before the powerful and the mighty.</i>, <i>The era Poland lives in, its alliances, its economic and geopolitical standing indicate that the nation is going to thrive only when it is going to take direct interest in the affairs of its Motherland.</i>, <i>”Though I’m always complaining about Polish stupidity and badmouthing Poles, it is only Poland that I serve.</i>, <i>I am of the opinion that never and nowhere shall it suffice for a state, for its defense and everything else, to have a single man, no matter how much of a genius. This burden has to be shouldered by the society as a whole.</i>, <i>Poland shall not, shall not perish! It shall thrive for centuries in power and glory. For us, for you, and for the whole of humanity.</i>, <i>We are different, coming from different parts of Poland and having different interests, yet we are united by one goal. That goal is our Motherland for which we want to live and work.</i>
|Ignacy Jan Paderewski|
independence, regaining independence, Dmowski, Piłsudski
Trójprzymierze – inaczej państwa centralne, tajny obronny układ pomiędzy trzema państwami – Niemcami, Austro‑Węgrami i Włochami (do 1915 r.) w okresie przed i w czasie I wojny światowej. Po odejściu Włoch z Trójprzymierza, termin ten oznaczał sojusz Niemiec, Austro‑Węgier i Turcji, która przystąpiła do porozumienia w sierpniu 1914 r.
Trójporozumienie – inaczej ententa, w czasie I wojny światowej przymierze państw utworzone przez Rosję, Francję i Wielką Brytanię i ich sojuszników.
Dyplomacja – wszelkie czynności jakie prowadzi państwo w celu rozwiązania w pokojowy sposób problemów międzypaństwowych.
Niepodległość – niezależność państwa od wpływu innych państw, instytucji na swoje działania.
Autorytet – osoba lub instytucja ciesząca się uznaniem i szacunkiem.
Federacja – forma organizacji państwa, które składa się z mniejszych posiadających autonomię państw związkowych, np. stanów, prowincji itp.
Nacjonalizm – pogląd głoszący wyższość danego narodu nad innymi.
Rozejm – inaczej zawieszenie broni, oznacza czasowe wstrzymanie działań zbrojnych między walczącymi stronami.