Wróć do informacji o e-podręczniku Wydrukuj Zapisz jako PDF Udostępnij materiał
RobQjSGOR4JyK1

E-resource FORESTRY

Źródło: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.

Root fungi attack a pine cultivation

1. Film in the standard version.

R14CVwcMmCIT41
The scene takes place in a forestry office. A forest service company employee brings pine seedlings with clear disease symptoms to the office. The forester connects the symptoms with a fungus that causes root rot. In accordance with forest protection instructions, he writes a report and sends it together with the seedlings to the Forest Protection Team. Scenka rozgrywa się kancelarii leśnictwa. Pracownik ZUL przywozi do kancelarii wykopane sadzonki sosnowe z wyraźnymi znamionami choroby. Leśniczy kojarzy objawy z grzybem powodującym hubę korzeniową. Zgodnie z instrukcją ochrony lasu sporządza meldunek i wraz z sadzonkami wysyła do Zespołu Ochrony Lasu.

2. Film with subtitles.

mabd96422e829305b_1497373101641_0
RtEqKyQNDOwfr1
The scene takes place in a forestry office. A forest service company employee brings pine seedlings with clear disease symptoms to the office. The forester connects the symptoms with a fungus that causes root rot. In accordance with forest protection instructions, he writes a report and sends it together with the seedlings to the Forest Protection Team. Scenka rozgrywa się kancelarii leśnictwa. Pracownik ZUL przywozi do kancelarii wykopane sadzonki sosnowe z wyraźnymi znamionami choroby. Leśniczy kojarzy objawy z grzybem powodującym hubę korzeniową. Zgodnie z instrukcją ochrony lasu sporządza meldunek i wraz z sadzonkami wysyła do Zespołu Ochrony Lasu.
mabd96422e829305b_1497374743908_0

3. Film with subtitles and pauses. Listen and repeat after the speaker.

mabd96422e829305b_1497350678958_0
RcEepBy6sgopL1
The scene takes place in a forestry office. A forest service company employee brings pine seedlings with clear disease symptoms to the office. The forester connects the symptoms with a fungus that causes root rot. In accordance with forest protection instructions, he writes a report and sends it together with the seedlings to the Forest Protection Team. Scenka rozgrywa się kancelarii leśnictwa. Pracownik ZUL przywozi do kancelarii wykopane sadzonki sosnowe z wyraźnymi znamionami choroby. Leśniczy kojarzy objawy z grzybem powodującym hubę korzeniową. Zgodnie z instrukcją ochrony lasu sporządza meldunek i wraz z sadzonkami wysyła do Zespołu Ochrony Lasu.
mabd96422e829305b_1497374860567_0

4. Film with subtitles and narration.

mabd96422e829305b_1497373163121_0
Ra6ZHjBgyUdQZ1
The scene takes place in a forestry office. A forest service company employee brings pine seedlings with clear disease symptoms to the office. The forester connects the symptoms with a fungus that causes root rot. In accordance with forest protection instructions, he writes a report and sends it together with the seedlings to the Forest Protection Team. Scenka rozgrywa się kancelarii leśnictwa. Pracownik ZUL przywozi do kancelarii wykopane sadzonki sosnowe z wyraźnymi znamionami choroby. Leśniczy kojarzy objawy z grzybem powodującym hubę korzeniową. Zgodnie z instrukcją ochrony lasu sporządza meldunek i wraz z sadzonkami wysyła do Zespołu Ochrony Lasu.
mabd96422e829305b_1497373168117_0
classicmobile
Exercise 1
R1YWWgNI3b6PI1
Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
static
classicmobile
Exercise 2
RlrxDzBen8NDU1
Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
static
mabd96422e829305b_1497274101782_0

Harmful insects in forests

RmkRydDliZg5n1
The animation presents the basic properties that need to be taken into consideration when planning activities connected with forest protection. Animacja przedstawia podstawowe cechy, które należy wziąć pod uwagę planując działania związane z ochroną lasu.
classicmobile
Exercise 3
R1Z0iB3OBNglx1
Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
static
mabd96422e829305b_1497275655300_0

Identifying mammal species on the basis of caused damages

RXVcKPx7Z3jMA1
The animation presents damages caused by mammals. The slides include, among others, oak seedlings rooted through by a boar, pine shoots browsed on by a roe deer, oak seedlings stripped by a deer, larch seedlings frayed by a buck during spring antler rubbing, alder and aspen trees cut down by beavers, crops beaten down by deer during the rutting season. Animacja przedstawia slajdy ze zdjęciami szkód, na których widać uszkodzenia spowodowane przez ssaki. Slajdy zawierają m.in. wybuchtowane przez dzika sadzonki dębu, zgryzione przez sarnę pędy sosny, ospałowane przez jelenie sadzonki buka, oczemchane przez kozły sadzonki modrzewia podczas wiosennego wycierania parostków, ścięte przez bobry drzewa olchy i osiki, wydeptane przez jelenie uprawy podczas rykowiska.
classicmobile
Exercise 4
Rb6rM1G0HhcS31
Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
static
mabd96422e829305b_1497275861398_0

Fencing or repellents?

The hypertext material is a fragment of an article from a specialist magazine. The article describes the methods of forest cultivation protection from wild game. It mentions the advantages and disadvantages of both fencing and repellents. It analyzes the costs of protecting 1ha of a cultivation.

Hipertekst jest fragmentem artykułu przedstawiającego formy ochrony upraw leśnych przed presją zwierzyny płowej. Wymienia wady i zalety zarówno grodzeń jak i użycia repentoli. Analizuje koszty ponoszone na zabezpieczenie 1 ha uprawy.

mabd96422e829305b_1531126402509_0

For a few years, we have been observing an increase in the big gamemabd96422e829305b_1497279637332_0big game in Poland. Its main place of dwellingmabd96422e829305b_1497279718401_0dwellingare forests that provide feedmabd96422e829305b_1497279733582_0feed and sheltermabd96422e829305b_1497279738479_0shelter. The most endangeredmabd96422e829305b_1497279743621_0endangered are sapling stands and cultivations. The most common methods of damage preventionmabd96422e829305b_1497279753543_0prevention are based mainly on the mechanicalmabd96422e829305b_1497279762480_0mechanical (mostly fencing) and chemicalmabd96422e829305b_1497279767416_0chemicalprotectionmabd96422e829305b_1497279772536_0protection of crops and sapling standsmabd96422e829305b_1497279748379_0sapling stands from cervidsmabd96422e829305b_1497279777622_0cervids. Cullingmabd96422e829305b_1497279787842_0Culling, which decreases the localdensitymabd96422e829305b_1497279782995_0density of wild game, is another common method of damage prevention.

Here are the characteristics of the individual methods.

Surface - fencing

Most often, cultivations are fenced with a 2m‑high steel mesh net. Thanks to the varied sizes of the mesh, the seedlings are protected from small and big herbivoresmabd96422e829305b_1497279793098_0herbivores. The mesh nets are mounted on poles distributed every 5m. Additionally, crossbars, protecting animals from smashing against the enclosure, and the mesh net itself, can be used.

Individual protection

If fencing is out of the question, we can protect the seedlings individually. This can be done thanks to coversmabd96422e829305b_1497279799633_0covers, picketingmabd96422e829305b_1531834079096_0picketing, wrapping seedlings in waddle or linseedsmabd96422e829305b_1531834086965_0wrapping seedlings in waddle or linseeds, wrapping them in wool, applying repellents, and very popular lately, so‑called natural methods of seedling protection. In practice, about 30‑40% of seedlings are protected: those that show the most promise, i.e, those which are straight, healthy, and with single tops.

Repellents used in the protection of seedlings are chemical deterring substancesmabd96422e829305b_1531834095480_0deterring substances. The substance is placed on the tops by hand, in a rubber glove. It can also be applied with a brush, or a paintbrush, on the current incrementmabd96422e829305b_1531834100447_0increment of a conifer, or on the whole seedling in the case of deciduous seedlings. It’s extremely important not to glue over the apical budmabd96422e829305b_1531834117488_0apical bud of a seedling.

classicmobile
Exercise 5
R1LuIUOQ4F2uB1
Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
static
mabd96422e829305b_1497279637332_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279718401_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279733582_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279738479_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279743621_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279748379_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279753543_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279762480_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279767416_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279772536_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279777622_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279782995_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279787842_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279793098_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497279799633_0
mabd96422e829305b_1531834079096_0
mabd96422e829305b_1531834086965_0
mabd96422e829305b_1531834095480_0
mabd96422e829305b_1531834100447_0
mabd96422e829305b_1531834117488_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497358683488_0

Preparing a forest renewal plan

The hypertext material is a dialogue between a forester and a deputy forester. Together, they plan the activities concerned with forest protection for the next year. The deputy forester lists the districts in which, after a field inspection, there is need for cultivation protection. They prepare a plan that includes, among others, the surface and location of planned enclosures, cultivations to be protected with repellents, the number of nesting boxes to be hung out and cleaned, and the number of classic pest traps, etc.

Hipertekst jest dialogiem leśniczego z podleśniczyną. Wspólnie sporządzają plan czynności do wykonania w zakresie ochrony lasu w kolejnym roku. Podleśniczyna podaje oddziały, w których po lustracji terenowej, widzi potrzebę ochrony upraw. Przygotowują plan, który zawiera m.in. powierzchnię i lokalizację planowanych grodzeń, uprawy do zabezpieczenia repentolem, ilość planowanych do wywieszenia budek lęgowych dla ptaków oraz budek do wyczyszczenia, ilość pułapek klasycznych na szkodniki itd.

mabd96422e829305b_1531126760943_0

Forester: Today, we will prepare the forest protection proposalmabd96422e829305b_1497292341857_0forest protection proposal for the next commercial yearmabd96422e829305b_1497292338305_0commercial year.

Deputy forester: What first?

Forester: The new enclosures. We have the field measurements of the place where we cut out 3 shelter wood this year. The circumferences are: 230, 250 and 310m. The enclosure seems to be 790m long. Please, plan the right number of oak poles.

Deputy forester: What kind of mesh net will we use?

Forester: A 2m‑high mesh net with denser mesh at the bottom, and with reinforced guiding pins. Deer have caused us trouble last year. They often tore down the fences. This type of mesh net will be optimal.

Deputy forester: We need about 180 poles with ***angle struts.***mabd96422e829305b_1497292330786_0***angle struts.*** We will need about 18m3 of oak pulpwood of the length of 2.5m.

Forester: We must also repair the old enclosures. Please, plan the remaining enclosures according to the same outline.

Deputy forester: Of course.

Forester: The next activity is applying a repellent. Let’s enter the following into the plan: the area in ha, the protected speciesmabd96422e829305b_1497292326285_0protected species, and the amount of the chemicalmabd96422e829305b_1497292312053_0chemical we will use.

Deputy forester: I suggest adding the pine cultivation to the planned areas of applying the repellent. I have noticed damage caused by animals there.

Forester: Of course. We also need to plan the distribution of trees for browsingmabd96422e829305b_1497292307534_0trees for browsing.

Deputy forester: Let’s also write down the autumn search for insects on the constant***inspection lots.***mabd96422e829305b_1497292302003_0***inspection lots.*** We have 4 in our forestry. Let’s also remember about the ***sawdust trees.***mabd96422e829305b_1497292294450_0***sawdust trees.*** I suggest planning 100 units. That should be enough for the current inspection of the presence of the***European spruce bark beetle.***mabd96422e829305b_1497292283746_0***European spruce bark beetle.***

Forester: Agreed. Please enter the remaining positions of the proposal and groups of activities using the forester panelmabd96422e829305b_1497292278430_0forester paneland transfer the data into the system. Oh, and please remember to increase the number of new nesting boxesmabd96422e829305b_1497292272551_0nesting boxeswe need to hang to 50 units.

Deputy forester: Of course. I’m getting down to work right now.

mabd96422e829305b_1497292341857_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497292338305_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497292390881_0
classicmobile
Exercise 6
R1MtYYyV2ULKG1
Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
static
mabd96422e829305b_1497292330786_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497292326285_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497292312053_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497292307534_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497292302003_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497292294450_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497292283746_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497292278430_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497292272551_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497276038098_0

Protecting tree stands from root rot

The hypertext material is a fragment of a training course. A forester trains the employees of a forest service company. The on‑the‑job training concerns the correct application of a solution against stump decay that protects the stumps left after trees are cut down (tree stands on post‑arable land) from root rot infection. The forester discusses the preparation of the solution, the methods of its application, notching a stump, covering it after the application of the solution, and OHS rules.

Hipertekst jest fragmentem szkolenia. Leśniczy szkoli pracowników Zakładu Usług Leśnych. Instruktaż stanowiskowy dotyczy prawidłowego aplikowania preparatu do rozkładu pni, zabezpieczającego pniaki po ściętych drzewach (drzewostan na gruncie porolnym) przed zainfekowaniem hubą korzeniową. Leśniczy omawia przegotowanie preparatu do aplikacji, sposób naniesienia, nacięcia pniaka, przykrycie po aplikacji, zasady BHP.

mabd96422e829305b_1531126536542_0

Welcome, gentlemen. Today, I will tell you about the pathogenmabd96422e829305b_1497302764422_0pathogen called root rotmabd96422e829305b_1497302754287_0root rot.

It’s one of the most important diseases of forest trees. It attacks roots and the butt parts of trunks. It’s known in all of Europe, North America and Asia. It affects mostly coniferous trees. In Poland, it’s especially common in Scots pine and Norway spruce, fir, larch, Eastern white pinemabd96422e829305b_1497302748645_0Eastern white pine and many others; less often in deciduous species. Infestationmabd96422e829305b_1497302736917_0Infestationis a problem for trees about 3 years old, or older. Young trees, up to about 15 years of age, succumb to the disease relatively faster. In older trees (especially spruce) it can result in a longtime wood decaymabd96422e829305b_1497302733680_0wood decayof roots and lower parts of the trunk. Root rot often attacks tree stands onpost‑arable landsmabd96422e829305b_1497302728712_0post‑arable lands.

Now the practical side of the subject. You will perform early thinning in the 38‑year‑old tree stand on a post‑arable land. After cutting down the designated units by the sawyers and after skidding, we will apply the prepared water solutionmabd96422e829305b_1497302618223_0water solutionof the PG‑IBL preparation for the stumpsmabd96422e829305b_1497302614191_0stumps. To improve the development conditions of the myceliummabd96422e829305b_1497302609415_0development conditions of the mycelium, each stump will be additionally notched in the middle to accelerate the soaking in of the preparation.

It’s important not to allow the stump to over drymabd96422e829305b_1497302603612_0over dry. Therefore, we must apply the preparation the next day the latest, and cover the stump with mossmabd96422e829305b_1497302598187_0mossor needles, but without mineral soilmabd96422e829305b_1497302589553_0mineral soil.

To efficiently prepare the stumps for preparation applicationmabd96422e829305b_1497302944027_0application, I have divided the area into working plotsmabd96422e829305b_1497302952671_0working plots so that we can prepare one plot per day.

I remind you of the OHS rules regarding work with a chainsaw and during skidding. When notching a trunk, there is a risk of guide tip recoilmabd96422e829305b_1497302963254_0guide tip recoil towards the operator.

The danger is eliminated by a brake in the perfect working conditionmabd96422e829305b_1531899176995_0brake in the perfect working conditionand the proper posture of the chainsaw operatormabd96422e829305b_1531899189416_0proper posture of the chainsaw operator.

Let’s get to work.

classicmobile
Exercise 7
RkOp6BZ0KUP3A1
Solve the exercise. Rozwiąż ćwiczenie.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
static
mabd96422e829305b_1497302764422_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302754287_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302748645_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302736917_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302733680_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302728712_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302618223_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302614191_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302609415_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302603612_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302598187_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302589553_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302944027_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302952671_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497302963254_0
mabd96422e829305b_1531899176995_0
mabd96422e829305b_1531899189416_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497304404977_0

Gallery

mabd96422e829305b_1497305016374_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497587652104_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497587668988_0

Typos

R1Wu5UOk2w7dD11
Play the game. Zagraj w grę.
Source: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Polskiego Rolnictwa / Eduexpert Sp. z o.o., licencja: CC BY 3.0.
mabd96422e829305b_1499032318800_0
mabd96422e829305b_1497304851566_0

Dictionary

angle strut, angle struts [ˈaŋɡ(ə)l strʌt] [phrase]
angle strut, angle struts [ˈaŋɡ(ə)l strʌt] [phrase]

zastrzał

mabd96422e829305b_1497305024756_0
apical bud, apical buds [ˈapɪk(ə)l bʌd] [phrase]
apical bud, apical buds [ˈapɪk(ə)l bʌd] [phrase]

pączek szczytowy

mabd96422e829305b_1497305028963_0
application [aplɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
application [aplɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

aplikacja

mabd96422e829305b_1497335091175_0
beat down [biːt daʊn] [verb]
beat down [biːt daʊn] [verb]

deptać

mabd96422e829305b_1497335096649_0
beetle, beetles [ˈbiːt(ə)l] [singular, noun]
beetle, beetles [ˈbiːt(ə)l] [singular, noun]

chrząszcz

mabd96422e829305b_1497335101839_0
big game [bɪɡ ɡeɪm] [phrase]
big game [bɪɡ ɡeɪm] [phrase]

zwierzyna gruba

mabd96422e829305b_1497336395332_0
bird, birds [bəːd] [singular, noun]
bird, birds [bəːd] [singular, noun]

ptak

mabd96422e829305b_1497336402048_0
borer, borers [ˈbɔːrə] [singular, noun]
borer, borers [ˈbɔːrə] [singular, noun]

kornik

mabd96422e829305b_1497336417468_0
brake in the perfect working order [breɪk ɪn ðə pəːfɪkt ˈwəːkɪŋ ˈɔːdə] [phrase]
brake in the perfect working order [breɪk ɪn ðə pəːfɪkt ˈwəːkɪŋ ˈɔːdə] [phrase]

sprawny hamulec

mabd96422e829305b_1497336426296_0
browse on [braʊz ɒn] [verb]
browse on [braʊz ɒn] [verb]

ogryzać, zgryzać

mabd96422e829305b_1497336435646_0
burn [bəːn] [verb]
burn [bəːn] [verb]

spalić

mabd96422e829305b_1497951440522_0
butterfly, butterflies [ˈbʌtəflʌɪ] [singular, noun]
butterfly, butterflies [ˈbʌtəflʌɪ] [singular, noun]

motyl

mabd96422e829305b_1498034118450_0
cervids [ˈsəːvɪdz] [plural, noun]
cervids [ˈsəːvɪdz] [plural, noun]

jeleniowate

mabd96422e829305b_1498034373932_0
chemical [ˈkɛmɪk(ə)l] [adjective]
chemical [ˈkɛmɪk(ə)l] [adjective]

chemiczny

mabd96422e829305b_1498035315140_0
chemical [ˈkɛmɪk(ə)l] [singular, noun]
chemical [ˈkɛmɪk(ə)l] [singular, noun]

preparat

mabd96422e829305b_1498035530169_0
commercial year [kəˈməːʃ(ə)l /jɪə] [phrase]
commercial year [kəˈməːʃ(ə)l /jɪə] [phrase]

rok gospodarczy

mabd96422e829305b_1498035725028_0
cover [ˈkʌvə] [singular, noun]
cover [ˈkʌvə] [singular, noun]

osłonka

mabd96422e829305b_1498035827118_0
culling [ˈkʌlɪŋ] [singular, noun]
culling [ˈkʌlɪŋ] [singular, noun]

odstrzał

mabd96422e829305b_1498035902878_0
cultivation, cultivations [kʌltɪˈveɪʃn] [singular, noun]
cultivation, cultivations [kʌltɪˈveɪʃn] [singular, noun]

uprawa

mabd96422e829305b_1498036288086_0
damage, damages [ˈdamɪdʒɪz] [singular, noun]
damage, damages [ˈdamɪdʒɪz] [singular, noun]

szkoda

mabd96422e829305b_1498037317754_0
damages [ˈdamɪdʒ] [plural, noun]
damages [ˈdamɪdʒ] [plural, noun]

straty

mabd96422e829305b_1498037463889_0
deer [dɪə] [singular, noun]
deer [dɪə] [singular, noun]

jeleń

mabd96422e829305b_1498037585993_0
density [ˈdɛnsɪti] [singular, noun]
density [ˈdɛnsɪti] [singular, noun]

zagęszczenie

mabd96422e829305b_1498038179960_0
development conditions of the mycelium [dɪˈvɛləpm(ə)nt /kənˈdɪʃ(ə)ns ɒv ðə mʌɪˈsiːlɪəm] [phrase]
development conditions of the mycelium [dɪˈvɛləpm(ə)nt /kənˈdɪʃ(ə)ns ɒv ðə mʌɪˈsiːlɪəm] [phrase]

warunki rozwoju grzybni

mabd96422e829305b_1498038180171_0
dig out [dɪɡ aʊt] [verb]
dig out [dɪɡ aʊt] [verb]

wykopać

mabd96422e829305b_1498038357148_0
dwelling [ˈdwɛlɪŋ] [singular, noun]
dwelling [ˈdwɛlɪŋ] [singular, noun]

bytowanie

mabd96422e829305b_1498038512559_0
Eastern White Pine, Eastern White Pines [ˈiːst(ə)n wʌɪt pʌɪn] [phrase]
Eastern White Pine, Eastern White Pines [ˈiːst(ə)n wʌɪt pʌɪn] [phrase]

sosna wejmutka

mabd96422e829305b_1498038693826_0
enclosure, enclosures [ɛnˈkləʊʒə] [singular, noun]
enclosure, enclosures [ɛnˈkləʊʒə] [singular, noun]

grodzenie

mabd96422e829305b_1498038800708_0
engraver, engravers [ɪnˈɡreɪvə] [singular, noun]
engraver, engravers [ɪnˈɡreɪvə] [singular, noun]

kambiofag

mabd96422e829305b_1498038885595_0
Eurasian elk, Eurasian elks [jʊ(ə)ˈreɪʒ(ə)n ɛlk] [singular, noun]
Eurasian elk, Eurasian elks [jʊ(ə)ˈreɪʒ(ə)n ɛlk] [singular, noun]

łoś

mabd96422e829305b_1498038979273_0
European bison, European bisons [jʊərəˈpiːən ˈbʌɪs(ə)n] [singular, noun]
European bison, European bisons [jʊərəˈpiːən ˈbʌɪs(ə)n] [singular, noun]

żubr

mabd96422e829305b_1498039057621_0
European spruce bark beetle, European spruce bark beetles [jʊərəˈpiːən spruːs bɑːk ˈbiːt(ə)l] [phrase]
European spruce bark beetle, European spruce bark beetles [jʊərəˈpiːən spruːs bɑːk ˈbiːt(ə)l] [phrase]

kornik drukarz

mabd96422e829305b_1498039065229_0
fallow deer [ˈfaləʊ dɪə] [singular, noun]
fallow deer [ˈfaləʊ dɪə] [singular, noun]

daniel

mabd96422e829305b_1498039072609_0
feed [fiːd] [singular, noun]
feed [fiːd] [singular, noun]

pokarm

mabd96422e829305b_1498039080933_0
feed [fiːd] [verb]
feed [fiːd] [verb]

żerować

mabd96422e829305b_1498039521057_0
form [fɔ:m] [singular, noun]
form [fɔ:m] [singular, noun]

forma

mabd96422e829305b_1498039528624_0
feeding ground [fiːdɪŋ ɡraʊnd] [phrase]
feeding ground [fiːdɪŋ ɡraʊnd] [phrase]

żerowisko

mabd96422e829305b_1498039534495_0
female, females [ˈfiːmeɪl] [singular, noun]
female, females [ˈfiːmeɪl] [singular, noun]

samica

mabd96422e829305b_1498039541251_0
forest protection proposal [ˈfɒrɪst prəˈtɛkʃ(ə)n prəˈpəʊz(ə)l] [phrase]
forest protection proposal [ˈfɒrɪst prəˈtɛkʃ(ə)n prəˈpəʊz(ə)l] [phrase]

wniosek ochrony lasu

mabd96422e829305b_1498039546364_0
Forest Protection Team [ˈfɒrɪst prəˈtɛkʃ(ə)n tiːm] [phrase]
Forest Protection Team [ˈfɒrɪst prəˈtɛkʃ(ə)n tiːm] [phrase]

Zespół Ochrony Lasu

mabd96422e829305b_1498039552067_0
fungus, fungi [ˈfʌŋɡəs] [singular, noun]
fungus, fungi [ˈfʌŋɡəs] [singular, noun]

grzyby

mabd96422e829305b_1498039557316_0
guide tip recoil [ɡʌɪd tɪp rɪˈkɔɪl] [phrase]
guide tip recoil [ɡʌɪd tɪp rɪˈkɔɪl] [phrase]

odbijanie końcówki prowadnicy

mabd96422e829305b_1498039563317_0
herbivore, herbivores [ˈhəːbɪvɔː] [singular, noun]
herbivore, herbivores [ˈhəːbɪvɔː] [singular, noun]

fitofag, roślinożercy

mabd96422e829305b_1498039568306_0
Hymenoptera [ˌhʌɪməˈnɒpt(ə)rə] [singular, noun]
Hymenoptera [ˌhʌɪməˈnɒpt(ə)rə] [singular, noun]

błonkówka

mabd96422e829305b_1498039574437_0
increment, increments [ˈɪŋkrɪm(ə)nt] [singular, noun]
increment, increments [ˈɪŋkrɪm(ə)nt] [singular, noun]

przyrost

mabd96422e829305b_1498039581371_0
infestation [ɪnfɛˈsteɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
infestation [ɪnfɛˈsteɪʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

porażenie

mabd96422e829305b_1498039587604_0
inspection lot, inspection lots [ɪnˈspɛkʃn lɒt] [phrase]
inspection lot, inspection lots [ɪnˈspɛkʃn lɒt] [phrase]

partia kontrolna

mabd96422e829305b_1498039593364_0
larva, larvae [ˈlɑːvə] [singular, noun]
larva, larvae [ˈlɑːvə] [singular, noun]

larwa

mabd96422e829305b_1498040509505_0
male, males [ˈmɑːleɪ] [singular, noun]
male, males [ˈmɑːleɪ] [singular, noun]

samiec

mabd96422e829305b_1498040523491_0
mechanical [mɪˈkanɪk(ə)l] [adjective]
mechanical [mɪˈkanɪk(ə)l] [adjective]

mechaniczny

mabd96422e829305b_1498040530465_0
mineral soil [ˈmɪn(ə)r(ə)l sɔɪl] [phrase]
mineral soil [ˈmɪn(ə)r(ə)l sɔɪl] [phrase]

gleba mineralna

mabd96422e829305b_1498040550545_0
moss [mɒs] [singular, noun]
moss [mɒs] [singular, noun]

mech

mabd96422e829305b_1498040556839_0
mouse, mice [maʊs] [singular, noun]
mouse, mice [maʊs] [singular, noun]

mysz

mabd96422e829305b_1498040577306_0
needles ['ni:dəlz] [plural, noun]
needles ['ni:dəlz] [plural, noun]

igły

mabd96422e829305b_1498040584585_0
nesting box, nesting boxes [ˈnɛstɪŋ bɒks] [singular, noun]
nesting box, nesting boxes [ˈnɛstɪŋ bɒks] [singular, noun]

budka lęgowa

nun moth, nun moths [nʌn mɒθ] [singular, noun]
nun moth, nun moths [nʌn mɒθ] [singular, noun]

brudnica mniszka

overdrying [əʊvəˈdrʌɪɪŋ] [singular, noun]
overdrying [əʊvəˈdrʌɪɪŋ] [singular, noun]

przesuszenie

pathogen, pathogens [ˈpaθədʒ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
pathogen, pathogens [ˈpaθədʒ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

patogen

peck out [pɛk aʊt] [verb]
peck out [pɛk aʊt] [verb]

wydziobać

pest, pests [pɛst] [singular, noun]
pest, pests [pɛst] [singular, noun]

szkodnik

picketing [ˈpɪkɪtɪŋ] [singular, noun]
picketing [ˈpɪkɪtɪŋ] [singular, noun]

palikowanie

pine weevil, pine weevils [pʌɪn ˈwiːvɪl] [singular, noun]
pine weevil, pine weevils [pʌɪn ˈwiːvɪl] [singular, noun]

szeliniak sosnowiec/świerkowiec

post‑arable land, post‑arable lands [pəʊstˈarəb(ə)l land] [phrase]
post‑arable land, post‑arable lands [pəʊstˈarəb(ə)l land] [phrase]

grunty porolne

prevent [prɪˈvɛnt] [verb]
prevent [prɪˈvɛnt] [verb]

zapobiegać

prevention [prɪˈvɛnʃn] [singular, noun]
prevention [prɪˈvɛnʃn] [singular, noun]

zapobieganie

primary pest, primary pests [ˈprʌɪm(ə)ri pɛst] [phrase]
primary pest, primary pests [ˈprʌɪm(ə)ri pɛst] [phrase]

szkodniki pierwotne

proper posture of the chainsaw operator [ˈprɒpə ˈpɒstʃə ɒv ðə ˈtʃeɪnsɔː ˈɒpəreɪtə]
proper posture of the chainsaw operator [ˈprɒpə ˈpɒstʃə ɒv ðə ˈtʃeɪnsɔː ˈɒpəreɪtə]

właściwa pozycja operatora pilarki

protected species [prə'tɛktəd ˈspiːʃɪz] [phrase]
protected species [prə'tɛktəd ˈspiːʃɪz] [phrase]

gatunek chroniony

protection [prəˈtɛkʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]
protection [prəˈtɛkʃ(ə)n] [singular, noun]

ochrona

recommendation, recommendations [ˌrɛkəmɛnˈdeɪʃ(ə)n] [**singular, noun]
recommendation, recommendations [ˌrɛkəmɛnˈdeɪʃ(ə)n] [**singular, noun]

zalecenia

repellent, repellents [rɪˈpɛl(ə)nt] [singular, noun]
repellent, repellents [rɪˈpɛl(ə)nt] [singular, noun]

substancja odstraszająca

report, reports [rɪˈpɔːt] [singular, noun]
report, reports [rɪˈpɔːt] [singular, noun]

meldunek

roe deer [rəʊ dɪə] [singular, noun]
roe deer [rəʊ dɪə] [singular, noun]

sarna

root collar [ruːt ˈkɒlə] [phrase]
root collar [ruːt ˈkɒlə] [phrase]

szyjka korzeniowa

root rot [ruːt rɒt] [singular, noun]
root rot [ruːt rɒt] [singular, noun]

huba korzeniowa

root through [ruːt θruː] [verb]
root through [ruːt θruː] [verb]

buchtować

root‑feeding insect, root‑feeding insects [ruːt fiːdɪŋ ˈɪnsɛkt] [phrase]
root‑feeding insect, root‑feeding insects [ruːt fiːdɪŋ ˈɪnsɛkt] [phrase]

ryzofag

sapling stand, sapling stands [ˈsaplɪŋ stand] [singular, noun]
sapling stand, sapling stands [ˈsaplɪŋ stand] [singular, noun]

młodnik

sawdust tree, sawdust trees [ˈsɔːdʌst triː] [phrase]
sawdust tree, sawdust trees [ˈsɔːdʌst triː] [phrase]

drzewa trocinowe

secondary pest, secondary pests [ˈsɛk(ə)nd(ə)ri pɛst] [phrase]
secondary pest, secondary pests [ˈsɛk(ə)nd(ə)ri pɛst] [phrase]

szkodniki wtórne

seedling, seedlings [ˈsiːdlɪŋ] [singular, noun]
seedling, seedlings [ˈsiːdlɪŋ] [singular, noun]

sadzonki

shelter [ˈʃɛltə] [singular, noun]
shelter [ˈʃɛltə] [singular, noun]

schronienie

spreading [sprɛdɪŋ] [singular, noun]
spreading [sprɛdɪŋ] [singular, noun]

rozprzestrzenianie

stump, stumps [stʌmp] [singular, noun]
stump, stumps [stʌmp] [singular, noun]

pniaki

tear out [tɛː aʊt] [verb]
tear out [tɛː aʊt] [verb]

wyrwać

threat, threats [θrɛt] [singular, noun]
threat, threats [θrɛt] [singular, noun]

zagrożenie

tree for browsing, trees for browsing [triː fɔː braʊzɪŋ] [phrase]
tree for browsing, trees for browsing [triː fɔː braʊzɪŋ] [phrase]

drzewa zgryzowe

water solution [ˈwɔːtə səˈluːʃ(ə)n] [phrase]
water solution [ˈwɔːtə səˈluːʃ(ə)n] [phrase]

roztwór wodny

wood decay [wʊd dɪˈkeɪ] [phrase]
wood decay [wʊd dɪˈkeɪ] [phrase]

rozkład drewna

working plot, working plots [ˈwəːkɪŋ plɒt] [phrase]
working plot, working plots [ˈwəːkɪŋ plɒt] [phrase]

działki robocze

wrapping seedlings in waddle or linseeds [ˈrapɪŋ ˈsiːdlɪŋs ɪn ˈwɒd(ə)l ɔː ˈlɪnsiːdz] [phrase]
wrapping seedlings in waddle or linseeds [ˈrapɪŋ ˈsiːdlɪŋs ɪn ˈwɒd(ə)l ɔː ˈlɪnsiːdz] [phrase]

pałukowanie

xylophage, xylophages [ˈzʌɪləfeɪdʒ] [singular, noun]
xylophage, xylophages [ˈzʌɪləfeɪdʒ] [singular, noun]

ksylofag